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Turkish Word Forms

Recognition of Turkish Parts of Speech

In English we have many little suffixes such as -ness, -ly, -tion etc. which we use to form and modify words and meanings from existing nouns and words. The same exists in the Turkish language and here we list some of the main ones.

Sometimes (as in English) the connection of the modified word is not always apparent from the original, however in your studies this list will help you to recognize parts of speech and take an educated guess at the actual meaning of the word in question.

It is all part of the language learning curve. Each word has to be learnt but being able to recognize word endings can often be a help in reading and communicating.

Forming Turkish nouns and adjectives

  • -lık-/lik-/-luk/-lük
  • Makes concrete and abstract nouns like -ness or -tion in English.
  • iyi good forms iyilik goodness
  • göz eye forms gözlük spectacles/eye-glasses
  • güzel nice, lovely forms güzellik beauty
  • Also forms nouns of place and usage
  • kömür coal forms kömürlük coal cellar
  • elma apple forms elmalik apple orchard
  • tuz salt forms tuzluk salt cellar
  • -lı-/li-/-lu/-lü
  • Forms adjectives furnished with, containing, emanating from and nationalities.
  • şehir town forms şehirli from town, urban, a towny
  • para money forms paralı moneyed, requiring payment in cash
  • ağaç tree forms ağaçlı a place of trees, a copse, a glade
  • İngiliz English forms İngilizli an Englishman
  • -sız/-siz/-suz/-süz
  • Forms adjectives of lacking, lack of: without, -less, un-
  • su water forms susuz thirsty, waterless
  • para money forms parasız without money, broke
  • zarar damage, injury forms zararsız unhurt, harmless, undamaged
  • -ci/-cı/-cu/-cü or -çi/-çı/-çu/-çü
  • Forms nouns of occupation, work etc.
  • taksi taxi forms taksici taxi driver
  • kebap kebab forms kebapçı kebab seller
  • balık fish forms balıkçı fisherman
  • yol road, way forms yolcu traveller
  • -ca/-ce/-ça/-çe
  • Forms the names of national languages and also adverbs and adjectives.
  • Türk Turk, Turkish forms Türkçe Turkish [as a language]
  • İngiliz English (as an adjective) forms İngilizce English [as a language]
  • İspanyol Spanish (as an adjective) forms İspanyolca Spanish [as a language]
  • aptal fool forms aptalca foolishly, in a foolish manner
  • yavaş slow forms yavaşça slowly, in a slowish manner
  • sert hard forms sertçe hardish
  • giz, gizli secret forms gizlice secretly
  • Gives the meaning of likeliness.
  • ÇocukÇA davranıyorsun. You are behaving LIKE a child. childishly
  • İnsanCA yasamalıyız. We must live humanLY.
  • Makes a noun into a verb.
  • Davranışları genellikle deliCE(dir). Her behaviours (plural in Turkish) are generally INSANE.
  • Gives the meaning in terms of, on the point of
  • KiloCA senden daha fazla. He is more than you IN THE TERMS OF of kilos.
  • AkılCA birbirinizden farkınız yok. You (in plural) don't have difference from each other IN THE TERMS OF intellect.
  • Gives the meaning according to
  • SenCE yaptığın doğru mu? Do YOU THINK it is right what you have done.
  • BenCE sana yeşil çok yakışıyor. I THINK green suits you well.
  • Gives the meaning of muchness, exaggeration
  • YüzlerCE kitap okumuş. He has read hundredS of books.
  • Enumerates a time period.
  • By being added to the nouns which is about time, Gives the meaning equality, for, during (the time), as long as.
  • Bu okulda yıllarCA çalıştım. I worked at this school FOR years.
  • Seni saatlerCE bekledim. I waited for you FOR hours.
  • Gives the meaning togetherness, unity
  • Bu kararı aileCE aldık. We took this decision AS ALL the family.
  • SınıfÇA pikniğe gittik. We went to picnic ALL TOGETHER WITH the class.
  • Shows the situation.
  • SessizCE beni dinle. Listen to me quietLY.
  • Onunla gizliCE buluştum. I met him secretLY.
  • Gives the meaning downsizing, decreasing, restriction
  • YaşlıCA bir adam bana seni sordu. An oldISH man asked me for you. not too old
  • BüyükÇE bir taşı fırlattı. He threw away a SOMEWHAT large stone.
  • -daş
  • Basically this suffix means -fellow
  • vatan native country forms vatandaş fellow countryman, citizen
  • arka back, behind forms arkadaş friend [Lit: the fellow behind]
  • yol road, way forms yoldaş fellow traveller
  • -inci/-ıncı/-uncu/-üncü
  • used for ordinal numbers
  • üç three forms üçüncü the third
  • beş five forms beşinci the fifth
  • -msı/-msi
  • acı bitter forms acımsı slightly bitter
  • ekşi sour forms ekşimsi sourish
  • -cil/-cıl
  • ben I forms bencil selfish
  • insan person forms insancıl humane, caring
  • -şın
  • sarı yellow forms sarışın blonde
  • -sal
  • kum sand forms kumsal sandy, beach, shoal
  • kadın woman forms kadınsal feminine, female, womanly
  • -ıt
  • yaş age forms yaşıt of the same age
  • yakmak to burn forms yakıt fuel
  • -cağız
  • A diminutive suffix, for persons and pets
  • kız girl forms kızcağız poor little girl
  • çocuk child forms çocukcağız poor little child
  • -cık/-cik/-cuk/-cük
  • A diminutive suffix for size, quantity.
  • az little, a bit forms azıcık just a bit, just a little
  • küçük small forms küçücük tiny, smallish
  • büyük big forms büyücük biggish
  • -tı/-ti/-tu/-tü
  • horuldamak to snore, to gurgle forms horultu a snore
  • cıvıldamak to chirp, to twitter forms cıvıltı a chirping, a twittering

Forming Turkish verbs from nouns or adjectives

  • -lamak/-lemek
  • su water forms sulamak to water, irrigate
  • taş stone forms taşlamak to pave ; to throw stones at.
  • uğur good luck forms uğurlamak to see somebody off.
  • temiz clean forms temizlemek to clean something; to finish off.
  • -almak
  • az less forms azalmak to lessen
  • dar narrow forms daralmak to become narrow
  • -l
  • doğru correct, accurate forms doğrulamak to correct, to certify
  • sivri sharp forms sivrilmek to become pointed, conspicuous
  • -a/-e
  • kan blood forms kanamak to bleed
  • yaş age forms yaşamak to live, to exist
  • tür a sort forms türemek to derive
  • -ar
  • yaş moist, damp forms yaşarmak to fill with tears
  • mor purple forms morarmak to turn purple
  • -damak/-demek
  • fısıltı a mutter forms fısıldamak to murmur, whisper
  • horultu a snore forms horuldamak to snore
  • gürültü noise forms gürüldemek to rumble
  • -atmak/-etmek
  • yön direction forms yönetmek to direct, administer
  • göz eye forms gözetmek to look after, to take care of
  • -ıkma/-ikmek
  • geç late forms gecikmek to be late, to fall behind
  • bir one forms birikmek to collect, to assemble one by one
  • -ımsamak/-imsemek
  • az less, small forms azımsamak to regard as of little value
  • benim my forms benimsemek to regard as one's own, to embrace in principle
  • küçük small forms küçümsemek to regard as small, to condescend
  • -kırmak
  • fıştı a squirt forms fışkırmak to gush
  • haykırış a squeal forms haykırmak to bawl, to holler
  • -lanmak/-lenmak
  • ev house forms evlenmek to marry
  • -laşmak/-leşmak
  • şaka joke forms şakalaşmak to joke with each other
  • dar marrow forms darlaşmak to get narrow, to get tight
  • soğuk cold forms soğuklaşmak to get cold
  • -samak/-semek
  • very often means to regard as.
  • su water forms susamak to get thirsty
  • garip odd, peculiar forms garipsemek to regard as strange, curious
  • önem importance forms önemsemek to regard as important

Forming Turkish nouns from existing verb roots

  • -ca/-ça -ce/-çe
  • düşünmek to think forms düşünce thought, opinion
  • eğlenmek to enjoy oneself forms eğlence amusement, entertainment
  • -acak/-ecek
  • This is a form of the Future Participle
  • giymek to dress forms giyecek clothes, outfit
  • olmak to become forms olacak suitable, reasonable
  • açmak to open forms açacak can, bottle opener
  • -ak/-ek
  • yatmak to lie down forms yatak bed
  • kaçmak to escape forms kaçak deserter, escapee
  • durmak to halt/stop forms durak bus stop, a halt
  • -ga/-ge
  • bölmek to divide, partition forms bölge zone, area, precinct
  • bilmek to know how to forms bilge profound, sophisticated
  • süpürmek to sweep. brush forms süpürge a broom, a brush, a whisk
  • -gan/-kan/-gen/-ken
  • çalışmak to work forms çalışkan industrious
  • unutmak to forget forms unutkan forgetful
  • kaymak to slide forms kaygan slippery
  • -gı/-gi
  • sevmek to love, like forms sevgi love, affection
  • çalmak to play (mus.) ; to steal forms çalgı musical instrument
  • asmak to hang (up) forms askı peg, hanger
  • -gıç/-giç
  • bilmek to know forms bilgiç info, data, know-how
  • dalmak to dive, dip forms dalgıç diver (marine), plunger
  • başlanmak to begin, to be begun forms başlangıç initial, start up
  • -gın/-kın/-gin/-kin/-gün/-kün/-gun/-kun
  • Forms nous and adjectives of description and result
  • bıkmak to be fed up with. forms bıkkın bored, fed up
  • yormak to tire, to become weary forms yorgun tired
  • solmak to fade forms solgun faded
  • şaşmak to deviate forms şaşkın bewildered, amazed
  • kızmak to get angry, to get hot forms kızgın angry, hot
  • -ı/-i/-u/-ü
  • Is added to single syllable words ending in a consonant and forms a noun of result from the verb modified.
  • ölmek to die forms ölü a corpse
  • yapmak to make forms yapı a construction, a building
  • dolmak to fill forms dolu full (adj.)
  • kokmak to smell forms koku a smell
  • koşmak to run forms koşu a race
  • -ıcı/-ici/-ucu/-ücü
  • yapmak to do forms yapıcı performer, doer, builder
  • görmek to see forms görücü matchmaker (for intended marriage)
  • almak to take forms alıcı purchaser, consignee
  • satmak to sell forms satıcı seller, dealer, vendor
  • -ık/-ik/-uk/-ük
  • forms nouns and adjectives of result.
  • kesmek to cut forms kesik a cut
  • açmak to open forms açık open (adj.)
  • bozmak to spoil forms bozuk ruined, spoiled, out of order
  • çıkmak to go/come out forms çıkık dislocated, projecting
  • delmek to bore, to drill forms delik hole
  • saçmak to scatter forms saçık strewn around, scattered, in disarray
  • -ım/-im/-um/-üm
  • forms nouns of a single occasion/happening
  • saymak to count forms sayım tally, census, count
  • seçmek to choose forms seçim choice, election, selection
  • ölmek to die forms ölüm death, demise
  • ölçmek to measure forms ölçüm measurement, size, reading on a scale
  • satmak to sell forms satım - a (single) sale
  • -ın/-in/-un/-ün
  • yığmak to heap up forms yığın heap, stack
  • akmak to flow, stream out forms akın raid, rush, invasion
  • tüt-ün water forms tütün to water
  • ekmek to plant, sow (v.) ; bread (n.) forms ekin crop, growing grain
  • -inç/-inç/-unç/-ünç
  • gülmek to laugh forms gülünç laughable, ridiculous
  • sevmek to like, love forms sevinç mirth, delight
  • -ıntı/-inti/-untu/-üntü
  • esmek to blow forms esinti breeze
  • çıkmak; to go out, exit forms çıkıntı projection, bulge, ledge
  • dökmek to pour, dump, empty forms döküntü spillage, debris, waste
  • -ar/-er/-ır/-ir/-ur/-ür and -r
  • from the Simple Present participle Positive
  • gelmek to come forms gelir income (money.), revenue, takings
  • gider to go, leave forms gider expenditure, outlay, expense
  • okumak to read forms okur reader, the reading public
  • -ış/-iş/-uş/-üş
  • this is the Co-operative (in concert) Verb Mood sign
  • oturmak to sit, to reside forms oturuş way of sitting
  • yürümek to walk forms yürüyüş a walk, gait, pace
  • -ıt/-it/-ut/-üt
  • geçmek to pass forms geçit passageway, thoroughfare
  • yakmak to burn forms yakıt fuel ; tons deadweight
  • ölçmek to measure forms ölçüt criterion, measure of value
  • -tı/-ti/-tu/-tü
  • belirmek to emerge, appear forms belirti indication, indicator
  • kızartmak to redden/chafe ; to grill forms kızartı eruption/glow

Forming new Turkish verbs from existing verbs

  • -ala/-ele
  • kovmak to drive away forms kovalamak to chase (after)
  • silkmek to shake, toss forms silkelemek to shake s.o. out
  • -ımsa/-imse [see "regarding as" verb forms]
  • gülmek to laugh forms gülümsemek to smile
  • anmak to mention forms anımsamak to recollect
  • -ın/-in/-un/-ün [see reciprocal verbs]
  • gezmek to wander forms gezinmek to roam/lounge
  • görmek to see forms görünmek to seem, appear
  • sevmek to love, like forms sevinmek to feel glad, to rejoice
  • taşımak to move forms taşınmak to move in/out ; to lodge with
  • -r [see causative mood]
  • kaçmak to escape forms kaçırmak to miss/let slip ; to kidnap
  • batmak to sink (by itself) forms batırmak to sink s.o
  • içmek to drink forms içirmek to ply drinks
  • [see co-operative mood]
  • görmek to see forms görüşmek to meet
  • uçmak to fly forms uçuşmak to fly away
  • gülmek to laugh forms gülüşmek to laugh at each other
  • -t [see causative mood]
  • uzamak to lengthen forms uzatmak to extend
  • sapmak to deviate forms sapıtmak to go crazy, talk gibberish
  • korkmak to fear forms korkutmak to frighten
  • üşümek to chill/to cool down forms üşütmek to get a chill/cold
  • -ıl/-il [see passive mood]
  • sevmek to like, love forms sevilmek to be loved/liked (pass.)
  • kırmak to fracture forms kırılmak to break s.o.
  • satmak to sell forms satılmak to be sold ; to vend
  •