Recognition of Turkish Parts of Speech

In English we have many little suffixes such as -ness, -ly, -tion

These suffixes modify words and meanings from existing nouns and words.

The same exists in the Turkish language on a larger scale.

Sometimes (as in English) the connection of the modified word is not always apparent from the original.

This list of turkish word Suffixes can help to recognize parts of speech and take an educated guess at the actual meaning of the word in question.

It is all part of the language learning curve.

New words have to be learnt and being able to recognize word endings can often be a help in reading and communicating.

Forming Turkish nouns and adjectives

  • -lık -lik -luk -lük
  • Makes concrete and abstract nouns like -ness or -tion in English.
  • iyi good
    iyilik goodness
  • göz eye
    gözlük spectacles / eye-glasses
  • güzel nice, lovely
    güzellik beauty
  • Also nouns of place and usage
  • kömür coal
    kömürlük coal cellar
  • elma apple
    elmalık apple orchard
  • tuz salt
    tuzluk salt cellar
  • -lı- li- -lu -lü
  • adjectives furnished with, containing, emanating from and nationalities.
  • şehir town
    şehirli from town, urban, a towny
  • para money
    paralı moneyed, requiring payment in cash
  • ağaç tree
    ağaçlı a place of trees, a copse, a glade
  • İngiliz English
    İngilizli an Englishman
  • -sız -siz -suz -süz
  • adjectives of lacking, lack of: without, -less, un-
  • su water
    susuz thirsty, waterless
  • para money
    parasız without money, broke
  • zarar damage, injury
    zararsız unhurt, harmless, undamaged
  • -ci -cı -cu -cü OR -çi -çı -çu -çü
  • nouns of occupation, work etc.
  • taksi taxi
    taksici taxi driver
  • kebap kebab
    kebapçı kebab seller
  • balık fish
    balıkçı fisherman
  • yol road, way
    yolcu traveller
  • -ca -ce -ça -çe
  • Gives the names of national languages and also adverbs and adjectives.
  • Türk Turk, Turkish
  • Türkçe Turkish [language]
  • İngiliz English [adj.]
  • İngilizce English [anguage]
  • İspanyol Spanish [adj.]
  • İspanyolca Spanish [language]
  • aptal fool
  • aptalca foolishly, in a foolish manner
  • yavaş slow
  • yavaşça slowly, in a slowish manner
  • sert hard
  • sertçe hardish
  • giz, gizli secret
  • gizlice secretly
  • -ca also: Gives the meaning of likeliness.
  • ÇocukÇA davranıyorsun.
    You are behaving LIKE a child. childishly
  • İnsanCA yasamalıyız.
    We must live humanLY.
  • -ca also: Makes a noun into a verb.
  • Davranışları genellikle deliCE(dir).
    Her behaviours (plural in Turkish) are generally INSANE.
  • -ca also: Gives the meaning in terms of, on the point of
  • KiloCA senden daha fazla.
    He is more than you IN THE TERMS OF of kilos.
  • AkılCA birbirinizden farkınız yok.
    You (in plural) don't have difference from each other IN THE TERMS OF intellect.
  • -ca also: Gives the meaning according to
  • SenCE yaptığın doğru mu?
    Do YOU THINK it is right what you have done.
  • BenCE sana yeşil çok yakışıyor.
    I THINK green suits you well.
  • -ca also: Gives the meaning of muchness, exaggeration
  • YüzlerCE kitap okumuş,
    He has read hundredS of books.
  • -ca also: Enumerates a time period.
  • By being added to the nouns which is about time, Gives the meaning equality, for, during (the time), as long as.
  • Bu okulda yıllarCA çalıştım.
    I worked at this school FOR years.
  • Seni saatlerCE bekledim.
    I waited for you FOR hours.
  • -ca also: Gives the meaning togetherness, unity
  • Bu kararı aileCE aldık.
    We took this decision AS ALL the family.
  • SınıfÇA pikniğe gittik.
    We went to picnic ALL TOGETHER WITH the class.
  • -ca also: Shows the situation.
  • SessizCE beni dinle.
    Listen to me quietLY.
  • Onunla gizliCE buluştum.
    I met him secretLY.
  • -ca also: Gives the meaning downsizing, decreasing, restriction
  • YaşlıCA bir adam bana seni sordu.
    An oldISH man asked me for you. not too old
  • BüyükÇE bir taşı fırlattı.
    He threw away a SOMEWHAT large stone.
  • -daş
  • Basically this suffix means -fellow
  • vatan native country
    vatandaş fellow countryman, citizen
  • arka back, behind
    arkadaş friend [Lit: the fellow behind]
  • yol road, way
    yoldaş fellow traveller
  • -inci -ıncı -uncu -üncü
  • used for ordinal numbers
  • üç three
    üçüncü the third
  • beş five
    beşinci the fifth
  • -msı -msi
  • acı bitter
    acımsı slightly bitter
  • ekşi sour
    ekşimsi sourish
  • -cil -cıl
  • ben I
    bencil selfish
  • insan person
    insancıl humane, caring
  • -şın
  • sarı yellow
    sarışın blonde
  • -sal
  • kum sand
    kumsal sandy, beach, shoal
  • kadın woman
    kadınsal feminine, female, womanly
  • -ıt
  • yaş age
    yaşıt of the same age
  • yakmak to burn
    yakıt fuel
  • -cağız
  • A diminutive suffix, for persons and pets
  • kız girl
    kızcağız poor little girl
  • çocuk child
    çocukcağız poor little child
  • -cık -cik -cuk -cük
  • A diminutive suffix for size, quantity.
  • az little, a bit
    azıcık just a bit, just a little
  • küçük small
    küçücük tiny, smallish
  • büyük big
    büyücük biggish
  • -tı -ti -tu -tü
  • horuldamak to snore, to gurgle
    horultu a snore
  • cıvıldamak to chirp, to twitter
    cıvıltı a chirping, a twittering

Forming Turkish verbs from nouns or adjectives

  • -lamak -lemek
  • su water
    sulamak to water, irrigate
  • taş stone
    taşlamak to pave ; to throw stones at.
  • uğur good luck
    uğurlamak to see somebody off.
  • temiz clean
    temizlemek to clean something; to finish off.
  • -almak
  • az less
    azalmak to lessen
  • dar narrow
    daralmak to become narrow
  • -l
  • doğru correct, accurate
    doğrulamak to correct, to certify
  • sivri sharp
    sivrilmek to become pointed, conspicuous
  • -a -e
  • kan blood
    kanamak to bleed
  • yaş age
    yaşamak to live, to exist
  • tür a sort
    türemek to derive
  • -ar
  • yaş moist, damp
    yaşarmak to fill with tears
  • mor purple
    morarmak to turn purple
  • -damak -demek
  • fısıltı a mutter
    fısıldamak to murmur, whisper
  • horultu a snore
    horuldamak to snore
  • gürültü noise
    gürüldemek to rumble
  • -atmak -etmek
  • yön direction
    yönetmek to direct, administer
  • göz eye
    gözetmek to look after, to take care of
  • -ıkmak -ikmek
  • geç late
    geçikmek to be late, to fall behind
  • bir one
    birikmek to collect, to assemble one by one
  • -ımsamak -imsemek
  • az less, small
    azımsamak to regard as of little value
  • benim my
    benimsemek to regard as one's own, to embrace in principle
  • küçük small
    küçümsemek to regard as small, to condescend
  • -kırmak
  • fıştı a squirt
    fışkırmak to gush
  • haykırış a squeal
    haykırmak to bawl, to holler
  • -lanmak -lenmak
  • ev house
    evlenmek to marry
  • -laşmak -leşmak
  • şaka joke
    şakalaşmak to joke with each other
  • dar marrow
    darlaşmak to get narrow, to get tight
  • soğuk cold
    soğuklaşmak to get cold
  • -samak -semek
  • very often means to regard as.
  • su water
    susamak to get thirsty
  • garip odd, peculiar
    garipsemek to regard as strange, curious
  • önem importance
    önemsemek to regard as important

Forming Turkish nouns from existing verb roots

  • -ca -ça -ce -çe
  • düşünmek to think
    düşünce thought, opinion
  • eğlenmek to enjoy oneself
    eğlence amusement, entertainment
  • -acak -ecek
  • This is a form of the Future Participle
  • giymek to dress
    giyecek clothes, outfit
  • olmak to become
    olacak suitable, reasonable
  • açmak to open
    açacak can, bottle opener
  • -ak -ek
  • yatmak to lie down
    yatak bed
  • kaçmak to escape
    kaçak deserter, escapee
  • durmak to halt / stop
    durak bus stop, a halt
  • -ga -ge
  • bölmek to divide, partition
    bölge zone, area, precinct
  • bilmek to know how to
    bilge profound, sophisticated
  • süpürmek to sweep. brush
    süpürge a broom, a brush, a whisk
  • -gan -kan -gen -ken
  • çalışmak to work
    çalışkan industrious
  • unutmak to forget
    unutkan forgetful
  • kaymak to slide
    kaygan slippery
  • -gı -gi
  • sevmek to love, like
    sevgi love, affection
  • çalmak to play (mus.) ; to steal
    çalgı musical instrument
  • asmak to hang (up)
    askı peg, hanger
  • -gıç -giç
  • bilmek to know
    bilgiç info, data, know-how
  • dalmak to dive, dip
    dalgıç diver (marine), plunger
  • başlanmak to begin, to be begun
    başlangıç initial, start up
  • -gın -kın -gin -kin -gün -kün -gun -kun
  • nouns and adjectives of description and result
  • bıkmak to be fed up with.
    bıkkın bored, fed up
  • yormak to tire, to become weary
    yorgun tired
  • solmak to fade
    solgun faded
  • şaşmak to deviate
    şaşkın bewildered, amazed
  • kızmak to get angry, to get hot
    kızgın angry, hot
  • -ı -i -u -ü
  • Is added to single syllable words ending in a consonant and →
    a noun of result from the verb modified.
  • ölmek to die
    ölü a corpse
  • yapmak to make
    yapı a construction, a building
  • dolmak to fill
    dolu full (adj.)
  • kokmak to smell
    koku a smell
  • koşmak to run
    koşu a race
  • -ıcı -ici -ucu -ücü
  • yapmak to do
    yapıcı performer, doer, builder
  • görmek to see
    görücü matchmaker (for intended marriage)
  • almak to take
    alıcı purchaser, consignee
  • satmak to sell
    satıcı seller, dealer, vendor
  • -ık -ik -uk -ük
  • nouns and adjectives of result.
  • kesmek to cut
    kesik a cut
  • açmak to open
    açık open (adj.)
  • bozmak to spoil
    bozuk ruined, spoiled, out of order
  • çıkmak to go / come out
    çıkık dislocated, projecting
  • delmek to bore, to drill
    delik hole
  • saçmak to scatter
    saçık strewn around, scattered, in disarray
  • -ım -im -um -üm
  • nouns of a single occasion / happening
  • saymak to count
    sayım tally, census, count
  • seçmek to choose
    seçim choice, election, selection
  • ölmek to die
    ölüm death, demise
  • ölçmek to measure
    ölçüm measurement, size, reading on a scale
  • satmak to sell
    satım - a (single) sale
  • -ın -in -un -ün
  • yığmak to heap up
    yığın heap, stack
  • akmak to flow, stream out
    akın raid, rush, invasion
  • tüt-ün water
    tütün to water
  • ekmek to plant, sow (v.) ; bread (n.)
    ekin crop, growing grain
  • -inç -inç -unç -ünç
  • gülmek to laugh
    gülünç laughable, ridiculous
  • sevmek to like, love
    sevinç mirth, delight
  • -ıntı -inti -untu -üntü
  • esmek to blow
    esinti breeze
  • çıkmak; to go out, exit
    çıkıntı projection, bulge, ledge
  • dökmek to pour, dump, empty
    döküntü spillage, debris, waste
  • -ar -er -ır -ir -ur -ür -r
  • from the Simple Present participle Positive
  • gelmek to come
    gelir income (money.), revenue, takings
  • gider to go, leave
    gider expenditure, outlay, expense
  • okumak to read
    okur reader, the reading public
  • -ış -iş -uş -üş
  • this is the Co-operative (in concert) Verb Mood sign
  • oturmak to sit, to reside
    oturuş way of sitting
  • yürümek to walk
    yürüyüş a walk, gait, pace
  • -ıt -it -ut -üt
  • geçmek to pass
    geçit passageway, thoroughfare
  • yakmak to burn
    yakıt fuel ; tons deadweight
  • ölçmek to measure
    ölçüt criterion, measure of value
  • -tı -ti -tu -tü
  • belirmek to emerge, appear
    belirti indication, indicator
  • kızartmak to redden / chafe ; to grill
    kızartı eruption / glow

Forming new Turkish verbs from existing verbs

  • -ala -ele
  • kovmak to drive away
    kovalamak to chase (after)
  • silkmek to shake, toss
    silkelemek to shake s.o. out
  • -ımsa -imse
  • [see "regarding as" verb]
  • gülmek to laugh
    gülümsemek to smile
  • anmak to mention
    anımsamak to recollect
  • -ın -in -un -ün
  • [see reciprocal verbs]
  • gezmek to wander
    gezinmek to roam / lounge
  • görmek to see
    görünmek to seem, appear
  • sevmek to love, like
    sevinmek to feel glad, to rejoice
  • taşımak to move
    taşınmak to move in / out ; to lodge with
  • -r
  • [see causative mood]
  • kaçmak to escape
    kaçırmak to miss / let slip ; to kidnap
  • batmak to sink (by itself)
    batırmak to sink s.o
  • içmek to drink
    içirmek to ply drinks
  • [see co-operative mood]
  • görmek to see
    görüşmek to meet
  • uçmak to fly
    uçuşmak to fly away
  • gülmek to laugh
    gülüşmek to laugh at each other
  • -t
  • [see causative mood]
  • uzamak to lengthen
    uzatmak to extend
  • sapmak to deviate
    sapıtmak to go crazy, talk gibberish
  • korkmak to fear
    korkutmak to frighten
  • üşümek to chill / to cool down
    üşütmek to get a chill / cold
  • -ıl -il
  • [see passive mood]
  • sevmek to like, love
    sevilmek to be loved / liked (pass.)
  • kırmak to fracture
    kırılmak to break s.o.
  • satmak to sell
    satılmak to be sold ; to vend