Suffixes are sometimes called postpositions in grammar. In Turkish they are suffixed directly to the noun that they modify thus forming new complete words. In English prepositions, in, on, of, by, etc. are placed separately in front of the word they modify.
In English we have many words which agglutinate (extend) to form other words. Taking the simple word - argue, it can be modified to argument by the addition of a -ment suffix. We can further extend this word with other suffixes - -ative producing argumentative, and even more to argumentatively by adding -ly suffix. This then is the way of Turkish. Even the little words like in, on, at, from are suffixed to their noun thus producing extended words with different meanings.
For Example: the addition of suffix -de - in, on, at and suffix -den - from - to an E-Dotted Vowel Form - E İ Ö Ü
ev - house
evde [ev-de] - in the house
evden [ev-den] - from the house
Most suffixes follow the Rule of Vowel Harmony, so similarly adding suffix -da - in, on, at to an A-UnDotted Vowel Form - A I O U
oda - room
odada [oda-da] - in the room
odadan [oda-dan] - from the room
Turkish has a Subject Condition (nominative) which carries no suffix and five conditions each with a typical ending. The vowels of the suffix must match final vowel of the root word according to Vowel Harmony Rules and the initial consonant of the suffix may change according to Consonant Mutation Rules.
The suffixes of the Noun Conditions are:
(1) Subject Condition:
The noun in its root form without a suffix. The Subject Condition is the subject of a sentence. (called the nominative in classical grammar)
(2) Object Condition:
Suffix -i/-ı/-u/-ü or -yi/-yı/-yu/-yü when affixed to words ending in a vowel or -ni/-nı/-nu/-nü when affixed to already extended words ending in a vowel. The Objective is the direct object of a verb, it equates to the in English (the accusative)
(3) Movement Towards Condition:
Suffix -a/-e or -ya/-ye when affixed direct to word ending in a vowel or -ne/-na when affixed to already extended words ending in a vowel. Movement Towards equates to to, towards in English. (the dative)
(4) Static Position Condition:
Suffix -da/-de or -ta/-te according to Consonant Mutation rules or -nde/-nda when affixed to extended words which end in a vowel. The Static is the condition of place equates to in, on, at in English. (the locative)
(5) Movement Away Condition:
Suffix -dan/-den or -tan/-ten according to Consonant Mutation rules or -nden/-ndan when affixed to extended words which end in a vowel. The Movement Away suffix equates to from, by, via in English. (the ablative)
Suffix -in/-ın/-un/-ün or -nin/-nın/-nun/-nün when affixed plain or extended words ending in a vowel The Ownership suffix signifies that the noun "owns" something. (the genitive). This suffix equates to of
[of Mehmet] or 's
There are three other suffixes which can be applied to nouns:
(7) With Condition:
Suffix -le/-la or -yle/-yla after vowels [It can also stand alone as a separate word - ile]. This suffix means together with, and, also,
(8) Without Condition (lacking):
Suffix -siz/-sız/-suz/-süz. This suffix gives the sense of lacking. This suffix equates to without
[without sugar] and the various negating prefixes and suffixes of English un-, dis-, non-, -less
[unfair, dishonest, nonsense, hopeless]
(9) Containing Condition (Furnished with, Containing, Belonging to, Place of):
Suffix -li/-lı/-lu/-lü gives the sense of belonging to somewhere or being contained in something. It equates to with
[with sugar] and various "additional and augmenting" suffixes and prefixes in English. [leafy, salty, coloured, numbered]
There is no Turkish word for the Subject Definite Article - only the context tells us when to insert the in English:
çay pahalı - Tea is expensive
çay soğuk - The tea is cold
araba caddede - The car is in the road
The subject can be non-specific or made specific in English with insertion of the definite article the
When the noun is an object of a verb as in Mehmet mended "the radio" Turkish does use an objective (accusative) suffix the. The subject definite article the does not, as a word, exist in Turkish but it does exist as a suffix to specify the object of a verb. In English we make both the subject and object of a sentence substantive by the use of the same definite article the. An example: Adam kapıyı (kapı-yı) kapattı - The man closed the door. Because the subject is already understood as substantive in Turkish it does not need a definite article. There is no The man as the subject definite article the is already understood in context. However there is an object definite article the in Turkish which appears as the suffix -(y)i, according to vowel harmony:
Formation of the Objective
The object specifier has the form of a suffix (governed by vowel harmony):
-i/-ı/-u/-ü is used with root nouns which end in a consonant or used with extended [already suffixed] nouns which end in a consonant
-yi/-yı/-yu/-yü [buffer letter -y] is only used with root nouns which end in a vowel.
-ni/-nı/-nu/-nü [buffer letter -n] is only used with extended [already suffixed] nouns ending in a vowel.
The Direct Object Pointer suffix -i, -ı, -u, -ü is suffixed directly to all root words which end in a consonant:
ev - house, the house - evi [ev-i] - the house (obj.)
sokak - street, the street - sokağı [sokağ-ı] - the street (obj.) - [sokak shows -k to -ğ consonant mutation here]
gül - rose, the rose - gülü [gül-ü] - the rose (obj.)
It takes buffer letter -y to become -yi, -yı, -yu, -yü - when added to a root word which ends in a vowel:
kedi - cat, the cat - kediyi [kedi-yi] - the cat - as an object of a verb
banka - bank, the bank - bankayı [banka-yı] - the bank (obj.)
kutu - box, the box - kutuyu [kutu-yu] - the box (obj.)
The buffer letter -y- is only used with simple nouns ending in a vowel which have not already been suffixed.
It is also suffixed to extended (already suffixed) nouns which end in a consonant:
evim - my house - evimi [ev-im-i] - my house (obj.)
sokağın - your street - sokağını [sokağ-ın-ı] - your street (obj.)
güller - roses - gülleri [gül-ler-i]- the roses (obj.)
But it takes buffer letter -n- to become -ni, -nı, -nu, -nü when added as a second suffix to an already extended noun.
kedisi - his/her cat - kedisini [kedisi-n-i] - his/her cat - as an object
bankası - his/her bank - bankasını [bankasını] - his/her bank - an object.
This shift of buffer letter - y to n - enables the listener to discern that the word is already agglutinated (extended) by previous suffixes. To reiterate: The buffer letter -n- is only used on already extended (suffixed) nouns.
Nouns both bare and extended ending in a consonant.
Adam kilidi (kilid-i) kapattı - THE man locked THE lock
The -i suffix makes the bare noun - THE LOCK - substantive as a Direct Object
Adam kilidimi (kilid-im-i) kapattı - THE man locked MY lock
The -i suffix makes the extended noun - MY LOCK - substantive as a Direct Object
Nouns both bare and extended ending in a vowel
Adam kapıyı (kapı-yı) kapattı - THE man closed THE door
The -yı suffix makes the bare noun - THE DOOR - substantive as a Direct Object
Adam kapısını (kapı-sı-nı) kapattı - THE man closed HIS door
The -nı suffix makes the extended (already suffixed) noun- HIS DOOR - substantive as a Direct Object
The Direct Object Suffix which makes the object substantive is one of the most difficult hurdles for English speakers to surmount when talking, reading, listening and understanding The Turkish Language.
Formation of the Motion Towards Condition. This takes the form of a suffix governed by Vowel haromy.
-e/-a is used with root nouns which end in a consonant or used with extended [already suffixed] nouns which end in a consonant
-ye/-ya [buffer letter -y] is only used with root nouns which end in a vowel.
-ne/-na [buffer letter -n] is only used with extended [already suffixed] nouns ending in a vowel.
The Motion Towards suffix -a or -e - to, towards is suffixed directly to all root words which end in a consonant:
ev - house, the house - eve [ev-e] - to the house
sokak - street, the street - sokağa [sokağ-a] - to the street
gül - rose, the rose - güle [güle] - to the rose
It takes buffer letter -y- when added directly as the first suffix to a root word which ends in a vowel - thus taking the form -ye, -ya
kedi - cat, the cat - kediye [kedi-ye] - to the cat
banka - bank, the bank - bankaya [banka-ya] - to the bank
It is also suffixed to extended (already suffixed) nouns which end in a consonant:
evim - my house - evime [ev-im-e] - to my house
sokağın - your street - sokağına [sokağ-ın-a] - to your street
güller - roses - güllere [gül-ler-e]- to the roses
But it takes buffer letter -n- when added as a second suffix to an already extended noun - thus taking the form -ne, -na.
kedi - cat, the cat - kedisi [kedi-si] - his cat - kedisine [kedi-si-ne] - to his cat
baba - father, the father - babaları [baba-ları] - their father - babalarına [baba-ları-na] - to their father
This shift of Buffer Letter -y to -n helps the listener to discern that that noun has already been extended by a previous suffix. To reiterate: The buffer letter -n- is only used on already extended (suffixed) nouns.
Examples of Motion Toward Suffix :
adama - [adam-a] - to the man
adamlara - [adamlar-a] - to the men
kediye - [kedi-ye] - to the cat
kedi - cat - ends in a vowel so "kedi-y-e" is used - [kedi-e] - would be incorrect.
kedilere - [kediler-e] - to the cats
eve - [ev-e] - to home
evlere - [evler-e] - to the houses
kapıya - [kapı-ya] - to the door
kapı - door - ends in a vowel so "kapı-y-a" is used - [kapı-a] - would be incorrect
kapılara - [kapılar-a] - to the doors
The Static Position (Locative) Suffix de or da - in, on, at. This suffix shows concrete place (location):
odadayım - [oda-da-yım]- I am in the room
Ali bey, evdeymiş. -[ev-de-ymiş] - Ali bey must be at home [
-imiş - inference]
adamda - [adam-da] - on the man
adamlarda - [adamlar-da] - on the men
kedide - [kedi-de] - on the cat
kedilerde - [kediler-de] - on the cats
evde - [ev-de] - at home
evlerde - [evler-de] - at the houses
kapıda - [kapı-da] - at the door
kapılarda - [kapılar-da] - at/by the doors
köprüde - [köprü-de] - on the bridge
köprülerde - [köprüler-de] - on the bridges
odada - [oda-da] - in the room
odalarda - [odalar-da] - in the rooms
For the plural we have added two suffixes -ler (Plural Suffix) and -de (Static Location Suffix) or -lar and -da and tagged them together to make one word in Turkish.
The suffix -den or -dan - from, by, via, through. This suffix show movment from a location.
adamdan - [adam-dan] - from the man
adamlardan - [adamlar-da] - from the men
kediden - [kedi-den] - from the cat
kedilerden - [kediler-den] - from the cats
evden - [ev-den] - from home
evlerden - [evler-den] - from the houses
kapıdan - [kapı-dan] - from the door
kapılardan - [kapılar-dan] - from the doors
köprüden - [köprü-den] - from the bridge
köprülerden - [köprüler-den] - from the bridges
odadan - [oda-dan] - from the room
odalardan - [odalar-dan] - from the rooms
For the plural we have added two suffixes -ler (Plural Suffix) and -den (Movement Away Suffix) or -lar and -dan and tagged them altogether to make one word in Turkish.
The form of the ownership suffix is: -in or -nin - [using buffer letter -n-] - when added to words which already end in a vowel, meaning - of, belonging to. This suffix is used for ownership. This suffix is also used grammatically in Turkish to form the Possessive Relationship, which is very important in the Turkish Language. The Possessive Relationship is dealt with at length elsewhere. The sign of the Ownership suffix is -in which is added to the noun, singular, plural or extended forms. It is subject to Vowel Harmony, the Vowel Harmonized forms become - -in -ın -ün -un - of , belonging to.
A sole exception - su - water
The word - su - water. The translation for - of the water is not "sunun", it is - suyun with exceptional buffer letter -y which is always used with the word su - water. This exception also applies to the Possessed Case you cannot say for Fruit Juice - "Meyve Susu" as the buffer letter -y- is always used with the word su - water consequently Meyve Suyu is the correct way to say - Fruit Juice.
Formation of the Ownership Suffix
The suffix -in/-ın/-un/-ün is added to the noun.
ev - house
evin - [ev-in] - the house's, of the house
evimin - [ev-im-in] - my house's, of my house
evinin - [ev-in-in] - your house's, of your house
memurun - [memur-un] - the official's, of the official
gözün - [göz-ün] - the eye's, of the eye
gözlerimin - [gözler-im-in] - my eyes', of my eyes
akşamın - [akşam-ın] - the evening's, of the evening
tavuğun - [tavuğ-un] - the chicken's, of the chicken
bakkalın - [bakkal-ın] - the grocer's, of the grocer
The Plural Suffix is added as first suffix. The Possessive Adjective is added secondly, and finally the Ownersip indicating Possession.
The Ownership Suffix - Nouns ending in Vowels
The Suffix changes to -nin/-nın/-nun/-nün - of or belonging to - using buffer -n- in order to keep two vowels apart
kedinin - [kedi-n-in] - of the cat, the cat's
kedilerinin - [kedi-leri-n-in] - their cat's, of their cat
kedisinin - [kedi-si-n-in] - of his cat, his cat's
bankanın - [banka-n-ın] - the bank's
bankasının - [banka-sı-n-ın] - his bank's
köprünün - [köprü-n-ün] - the bridge's
Ali 'nin - [Ali-'n-in] - Ali's
Londra 'nın - [Londra-'n-ın] - London's
All suffixes are written apart from any Proper Name which begins with a capital letter. The last two examples above show this accordingly
The Ownership Suffix with Extended words (already suffixed)
The suffix -in -ın -ün -un - of , belonging to always takes buffer letter -n- to become -nin -nın -nün -nun when added either to a root word or to an extended word which ends in a vowel.
kedinin - [kedi-nin] - the cat's - kedisinin - [kedi-si-nin] - his cat's
bankanın - of the bank - bankasının - of his bank
arabanın - the car's - arabasının - his car's..
Ali 'nin - Ali 's - Ayşe 'nin - Ayshe 's
köprünün - of the bridge - köprülerinin - of their bridges
The suffix -in always becomes -nin whether suffixed to a Simple Noun or to an already suffixed noun.
The Suffix -le -la - with, and, also
The word for - with - in Turkish is - ile - this is one word which can stand on its own after the word it modifies. In which case it does not follow vowel harmony rules but is always written and spoken - ile.
Mehmed ile - [Mehmed ile] - with Mehmet or Mehmet'le - [Mehmet-'le] - with Mehmet
gözlerim ile - [gözler-im ile] - with my eyes or gözlerimle - [gözler-im-le] - with my eyes
domuzla - [domuz-la] - with the pig or domuz ile - [domuz ile] - with a (any) pig
domuzuyla - [domuz-u-yla] - with the pig or domuzu - [domuz-u ile] - with the pig
arkadaşınla - [arkadaş-ın-la] - with your friend or arkadaşın ile - [arkadaş-ın ile] - with your friend
Using - ile - with words which end in a vowel
When adding - ile - to words that end in a vowel the initial letter -i of -ile changes to a buffer letter -y in order to keep two vowels apart - thus the forms -yla and -yle are used.
paltosuyla - [palto-su-yla] - with his overcoat
bir arabayla - [bir araba-yla] - with a car
kediyle - [kedi-yle] - with the cat
kedisiyle - [kedi-si-yle] - with his cat
iskemleyle - [iskemle-yle] - with the chair
eliyle - [el-i-yle] - with his hand
elleriyle - [eller-i-yle] - with his hands
babasıyla - [baba-sı-yla] - with his father
If the suffixed form is used then it changes to -yle -yla after vowels. As previously stated, whether to use ile as stand alone or as a suffix is a free choice of the speaker or writer, but there is a change in the meaning:
Translation of - ile - and, also
When it stands between two nouns the suffix - ile - can be used to translate and when the basic meaning is with, also. Even when it is suffixed as -le/-la or -yle -yla [when added to vowel] it is still translated as and meaning "also".
Masada fincanla tabaklar var - There are cups and plates on the table.
Ali ile arkadaşı , odaya girdi - Ali and his friend entered the room.
Mustafa ile Selim partiye gitti - Mustapha and Selim went to the party.
However if the suffix -le/-la does not come between the nouns then it is tranlsted as with, together with.
Benimle Mehmet geldi - Mehmet came with me. - [Lit: With me Mehmet came.]
Ali arkadaşıyla , odaya girdi - Ali entered the room with his friend.
Mustafa, Selim 'le partiye gitti - Mustapha went to the party with Selim.
If ile is in between two people or things as in Ali ile arkadaşı; Mustafa ile Selim then these sentences are translated into English by the conjunction "and" Ali and his friends; Mustafa and Selim.
If ile does not in between two nouns it is translated by "with" - Ali went to party with his friend.
Toplantıya sekreterimle katıldım. - I attended the meeting with my secretary.
Patron ile adamları aniden silahlarını çektiler. - The boss and his men suddenly pulled their guns.
Note that in this type of sentence above ve - and, also could be used in place of ile
Ali ve arkadaşı odaya girdi.
Mustafa ve Selim partiye gitti.
Masada fincan ve tabak var.
For the other sentences we can not use "ve" in place of "ile".
Benimle Mehmet geldi ("ve" can not be used) ; Ali, arkadaşıyla odaya girdi. ("ve" can not be used.)
The Suffix -siz -sız -süz -suz - without, un-, non-, -less, dis-
This suffix gives the sense of lacking. In English it can be translated as un- as in unavailable or -less - as in worthless or dis- as in distaste.
ehliyet - licence - ehliyetsiz - unlicensed [ehliyetli - licensed]
renk - colour - renksiz - colourless [renkli - coloured]
sabır - patience - sabırsız - impatient [sabırlı - patient]
işaret - sign - işaretsiz - unsigned [işaretli - signed]
ses - noise - sessiz - noiseless [sesli - noisy]
şeker - sugar - şekersiz - unsugared [şekerli - sugared, sweetened]
namus - honesty - namussuz - dishonest [namuslu - honest]
Bir çay, şekersiz olsun, lütfen. - A tea, no sugar, please.
Sonsuz bir yolculuk gibiydi. - It was like an endless journey.
Sensiz gidiyorum - I'm going without you.
Değersiz bir saat aldım. - I bought a worthless watch.
İçkisiz bir aile gazinosuna gittik. - We went to a non-alcoholic family restaurant.
Note: içkisiz - without alcoholic drinks - [ie: Alcohol is not served] is seen on many Public Signs
We can form plural nouns by adding the -ler or -lar plural suffix to an adjective:
sabırsızlar - the impatient ones
şekersizler - the unsugared ones
renksizler - the uncoloured/colourless ones
The Suffix -li -lı -lü -lu - originating from, furnished with, place of,
This suffix gives the sense of belonging to something or somewhere. It is used with place names - especially to say where one is from. The -li suffix is not separated from a Proper Noun by an apostrophe as other suffixes generally are - "Londra'lı" would be incorrect - Londralı is correct.
Londralı - [Londra-lı] - a Londoner
Londralılar - [Londra-lı-lar] - Londoners
İstanbullu - [İstanbul-lu] - an Istanbuli
İstanbullular - [İstanbul-lu-lar] - Istanbulis
İngiltereliyim - [İngiltere-li-yim] - I am from England
Bolulu - [Bolu-lu] - a person from Bolu
Çinli - [Çin-li] - a Chinese Man (Chinaman)
This suffix also gives the sense of belonging to something or somewhere, it is widely used with place names - especially to say where one is from:
İngiltereliyim - I am from England, Mançesterliyim - I come from Manchester, Nerelisiniz? - Where (exactly) are you from?
An Actual Example of the "containing" suffix.
Here is a picture of a sandwich bar's billboard showing the type of sandwiches available :
karışık - mixed
kaşarlı [kaşar-lı] - containing hard cheese
sucuklu [sucuk-lu] - containing Turkish type sausage
salamlı [salam-lı] - containing salami
sosisli [sosis-li] - containing sausage
Here vowel harmony is operating on the suffix -li as it has three of it four forms in this picture.
The meaning of - "furnished with" - is used to make attributive adjectives - tuz - salt - giving - tuzlu - salty - is a prime example. Should you use sugar in your tea then you might ask for - şekerli çay - which can mean sweet tea, sugared tea, sugary tea, - according to context.
sabır - patience - sabırlı - patient
kuvvet - strength - kuvvetli - strong
yaprak - leaf - yapraklı - leafy
çimen - lawn - çimenli - having a lawn
yaş - age - yaşlı - old
renk - colour - renkli - coloured
ses - noise - sesli - noisy
yatak - bed - yataklı - furnished with a bed
tuz - salt - tuzlu - salty
Mehmet sabırlı bir adamdır. - Mehmet is a patient man.
Ali kuvvetli bir genç. - Ali is a strong youth.
Bir yapraklı ağaç. - A leafy tree.
Çimenli bir ev. - It is a house with a lawn.
Yaşlı bir at. - It is an old horse.
İçkili bir lokantaya gittik. - We went to an alcohol serving bistro.
Note: içkili - furnished with alcoholic drinks - [ie: Alcoholic drinks are served]
We can form plural nouns by adding the -ler or -lar plural suffix to an adjective:
sabırlılar - the patient ones
kuvvetliler - the strong ones
yaşlılar - the aged
These adverbs require that the preceding noun have the Motion Towards (dative) -e/-ye, -a/-ya - to/toward suffix:
buna nazaran - compared to this
bunlara nazaran - compared to these
şuna nazaran - compared to that
şunlara nazaran - compared to those
ona nazaran - compared to that
onlara nazaran - compared to those
Düne nazaran bugün hava daha güzel
Compared to yesterday, the weather is better today.
Geçen yıl burada şarkı söyleyen sanatçıya nazaran, bu akşam dinlediğimiz kadın o kadar iyi değildi.
Compared to the singer that we heard here last year, the lady we listened to this evening was not as good.
Sen bana yardım edebilen tek insansın.
You are the only person which/that/who can help me.
Modern İngilizce’de "that" diğer "relative pronoun" 'lara nazaran daha sık kullanılmaktadır.
In Modern English the relative pronoun "that" is used more often compared to the other relative pronouns "who, which".
Rakiplerine nazaran ücretsizdir.
Compared to the competitors it is price free.
FlashGet'e nazaran iso dosyalarını indirme sürecinde bozmaz.
Compared to FlashGet it does not spoil
iso files while downloading.
şimdiye kadar. - [şimdi-ye kadar] - up to now.
Ankara'ya kadar. - as far as Ankara.
Gelecek pazara kadar bekleyelim. - Let us wait until next Sunday.
Çarşıya kadar gidiyorum. - I am going as far as the shops.
bankaya doğru - [banka-ya doğru] - straight to the bank
Eve doğru git! - Go staight home!
Evden okula doğru gidin. - Go straight to school from home.
bana göre - according to me
sana göre - according to you
Memed'e göre - according to Mehemet
This has both or either the comparing to and according to meanings in a sentence.
Yeni plâna göre, evimizin arka bahçesi küçültülecekmiş.
According to the new plan our back garden wil be made smaller.
Selim'e göre para piyasaları yarından itibaren hareketlenecekmiş.
According to Selim the money markets will probably move from tomorrow onwards.
Okuduğun kitap benimkine göre daha kalın görünüyor.
The book that you are reading looks thicker than mine. - ("compared to mine" - The example is making a comparison.)
Bu gazeteye göre hiç yeni haberi daha çıkmamış.
According to this newspaper no more new news has happened yet.
duvara karşı - [duvar-a karşı] - against the wall
rüzgara karşı - [rüzgar-a karşı] - against the wind
Garajın kapısına karşı bisikletimi bırakmışım. - I believe I left my bicycle against the garage door.
Rüzgara karşı işeyen oğlan. - I leave this for you all to translate!!
buna rağmen - in spite of this, bunlara rağmen - in spite of these
şuna rağmen - in spite of that, şunlara rağmen - in spite of those
ona rağmen - in spite of that, onlara rağmen - in spite of those
In English there are many types of -e rağmen - although, though, in spite of, despite, notwithstanding, albeit etc..In Turkish however thereare only two words: -e rağmen or -e karşın.. When using -e rağmen or -e karşın the sentence should contain contrast, insistence, regret, tenacity or hope.
Her şeye rağmen başarabilirdik.
In spite of everything we were able to succeed.
Bir sürü şey olmuş ve başaramamışlar. (Pişmanlık = regret, remorse)
Havanın kararmasına rağmen, yollarına hâlâ yürüyerek devam ediyorlardı.
Despite the weather getting worse, they still carried on walking along the road.
Hava kararmış/ama hâlâ yürümeye devam ediyorlar. (inat = stubboness, ısrar = persistence)
Odanın yeterince sıcak olmasına rağmen, (yine de) üzerindeki kazağı çıkarmamıştı.
Although the room was warm enough, he did not take off the jumper that he was wearing.
Oda sıcak/ama kazağını hâlâ çıkarmıyor. (inat = doggedness, obstinacy)
Ailevî sorunlarının kafasını çok meşgul etmesine rağmen, derslerine çalışmaya (ısrarla) devam etti.
Even though family responsibilities were keeping him busy, he continued working at his lessons.
Sorunlar kafasını meşgul ediyor/ama hâlâ derslerini çalışıyor. (ısrar - insistency, inat = tenacity)
Üzerine doğrultulan silâhlara rağmen soğukkanlılığını hiç bozmadı.
Even with the guns pointing directly at him, he never lost his nerve.
Silahlar doğrultulmuş/ama hâlâ soğukkanlı. (zıtlık = contrast, contrariness)
Bütün bu olumsuz koşullara rağmen yine de başarabiliriz.
Despite all these negative circumstances, he was able to succeed again.
Koşullar olumsuz/ama yine de başarabilirler. (umut = hope , zıtlık = contrast)
Hayatı boyunca gitar çalmayı öğrenmek istemesine rağmen nedense iyi bir keman virtüözü oldu.
Although he had wanted to learn to play the guitar throughout his life, somehow he turned into a violin virtuoso.
Oldum olası gitar çalmayı öğrenmek istediği halde, buna karşın güzelce kemancı oldu. (zıtlık = contrast, contrariness)
Akşam saat 7’den sonra yemek yemenin sağlığa zararlı olduğunu bilmesine rağmen, her gece yatmadan önce atıştırmaktan kendini alamıyordu. (kendini alamamak= can’t help)
In spite of knowing that eating after 7 o'clock in the evening is dangerous to health, he could not help taking a snack before going to bed.
Akşam saat 7’den sonra yemek yemenin sağlığa zararlı olduğu halde bileyerek, her akşam yatmadan önce yemek yermiş. (inat = doggedness, obstinacy, pigheadedness)
Ben hiçbir suçum olmamasına rağmen pişmanım, ya sen? - Despite not being at fault, I am sorry, how about you?
Kalan benzinimizin şehre varmaya yetmeyeceği belli olmasına rağmen, ısrarla yola devam ettiler. - Despite us not having petrol left to get to town, they insisted on continuing on the road.
olma-ma-sı-n-a - this is Negative Infinitive of "olmama(k)" - "to not be", with the addition of
-(s)ı making it a specific definite noun [described by "Kalan benzinimiz" - "which-remains petrol-our"] which is further suffixed with
-(n)a to make it part of "rağmen" clause.
An actual newspaper article - Peugeot Crisis
İSTANBUL, 5 Mart (Reuters) - Fransız otomotiv üreticisi Peugeot'nun CEO'su Jean Philleppe Colin, krize rağmen Türkiye'ye ilişkin yatırım projelerinin devam ettiğini, kompakt sedan sınıfı araçların Türkiye'de üretimi için fizibilite çalışmaları yaptıklarını söyledi.
ISTANBUL, 5 March (Reuters) - The CEO of French car producer Peugeot Jean Philleppe Colin has said that in spite of the crisis, that the investment project concerning the compact sedan class vehicles' production in Turkey feasability studies are on-going.
Peugeot krize rağmen (kriz-e rağmen) Türkiye'ye yatırım projesini sürdürüyor.
In spite of the Peugeot crisis the investment project is still carrying on for Turkey.
Dependent Adverbs with "-den/-dan"
These adverbs require that the preceding noun have the motion away -den/-dan, -ten/-tan - from suffix:
-dan dolayı - because of.
-dan başka - except for, apart from, other than.
-dan beri - since.
-dan önce - before (in time). this is modern Turkish, and is the preferred form
-dan evvel - before (in time). this is the older from from Arabic, but still often used
-dan sonra - after.
Bundan dolayı - because of this
Mehmet'in yaptıklarından dolayı asla başaramayız! - Because of what Mehmet did we will never be able succeed.
ondan başka - except for that
Piyanomdan başka her şeyi geri bırakacağım - Except for my piano I will leave everything behind
Ondan beri - since then
saat üçten beri - since 3 o'clock. - (üç-ten beri)
saat üçten beri sizi arıyordum. - I have been looking for you since three o'clock
Geçen haftadan beri hastayım. (This means that I am still ill.) - I have been ill since last week./I have been ill for a week.
şundan önce/evvel - before that - (in time)
Mayıs ayından evvel/önce mühendis olarak çalışıyordum. (or çalışmaktaydım.) - Before May I was working as an engineer.
Ondan sonra - after that
Haziran ayından sonra emekli olacağım. - After July I shall retire (from work).