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Turkish Basic Suffixes

Suffixes
A letter or a group of letters that is added to the end of a word to change its meaning or to form a different word
Called "post-positions" in grammar.
In Turkish they are suffixed directly to the noun that they modify thus forming new complete words.
In English prepositions: in, on, of, by, etc. are placed separately in front of the word they modify.

Turkish Suffixes and Vowel Harmony

In English we have many words which agglutinate (extend) to form other words. Taking the simple word argue, it can be modified to argument by the addition of a -ment suffix. We can further extend this word with other suffixes -ative producing argumentative, and even more to argumentatively by adding -ly suffix. This then is the way of Turkish. Even the little words like in, on, at, from are suffixed to their noun thus producing extended words with different meanings.

Turkish Suffix addition to Dotted E İ Ö Ü Vowels.

The addition of suffix -de/-te in, on, at
ev house becomes evde [ev-de] in the house
geçit passage becomes geçitte [geçit-te] in the passage

The addition of suffix -den/-ten from
evden [ev-den] from the house
girişten [giriş-ten] from the entrance

Turkish Suffix addition to UnDotted A I O U Vowels.

The addition of suffix -da/-ta in on at
odada [oda-da] in the room
yatakta [yatak-ta] on the bed

The addition of suffix -dan/-tan from
masada [masa-dan] from the table
cevaptan [cevap-tan] from the answer

The Six Noun Conditions

Turkish has a Subject Condition (nominative) which carries no suffix and five conditions each with a typical ending. The vowels of the suffix must match final vowel of the root word according to Vowel Harmony Rules and the initial consonant of the suffix may change according to Consonant Mutation Rules.

The suffixes of the Noun Conditions are:

  • (1) Subject Condition: [gram: nominative]
    The noun in its root form without a suffix. The Subject Condition is the subject of a sentence.
    The Turkish subject is understood as being definite/substantive adam the man
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  • (2) Object Condition: [gram: accusative. objective the]
    Suffix -i/-ı/-u/-ü or -yi/-yı/-yu/-yü when affixed to words ending in a vowel or -ni/-nı/-nu/-nü when affixed to already extended words ending in a vowel. The Objective is the direct object of a verb, it equates to definite article the in English.
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  • (3) Movement Towards Condition: [gram: dative to, towards]
    Suffix -a/-e or -ya/-ye when affixed direct to word ending in a vowel or -ne/-na when affixed to already extended words ending in a vowel. Movement Towards equates to to, towards in English.
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  • (4) Static Position Condition: [gram:locative in on at]
    The generic suffix -da/-de is appended according to vowel harmony rules.
    If the word ends hard consonant [p ç t k s ş h f] it changes to -ta/-te according to consonant mutation rules.
    or -nde/-nda when affixed to extended words which end in a vowel.
    The Static Postion is the condition of place.
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  • (5) Movement Away Condition: [gram:ablative from by via]
    The generic suffix -dan/-den is appended according to vowel harmony rules.
    If the word ends hard consonant [p ç t k s ş h f] it changes to -tan/-ten according to consonant mutation rules.
    or -nden/-ndan when affixed to extended words which end in a vowel.
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  • (6) Ownership Condition: [gram:genitive of, 's]
    Suffix -in/-ın/-un/-ün or -nin/-nın/-nun/-nün when affixed plain or extended words ending in a vowel
    The Ownership suffix signifies that the noun "owns" something: [of Mehmet, Mehmet's]
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  • (7) With Condition: [meaning: together with, and, also]
    Suffix -le/-la or -yle/-yla after vowels.
    This suffix can also stand alone as a separate word ile.
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  • (8) Without (lacking) Condition: [meaning: without]
    Suffix -siz/-sız/-suz/-süz. This suffix gives the sense of lacking.
    This suffix equates to without [without sugar] and the various negating prefixes and suffixes of English un- dis- non- -less [unfair, dishonest, nonsense, hopeless]
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  • (9) Containing Condition: [meaning: furnished with, containing, belonging to, place of]
    Suffix -li/-lı/-lu/-lü gives the sense of belonging to somewhere or being contained in something.
    It equates to with [with sugar] and various "additional and augmenting" suffixes and prefixes in English.
    [leafy, salty, coloured, numbered]

Turkish Subject Condition

There is no Turkish word for the Subject Definite Article only the context tells us when to insert the in English:
çay pahalı Tea is expensive
çay soğuk The tea is cold
araba caddede The car is in the road
The subject can be non-specific or made specific in English with insertion of the definite article the

Turkish Object Condition

Suffix: -i/-ı/-u/-ü -yi/-yı/-yu/-yü -ni/-nı/-nu/-nü
When the noun is an object of a verb as in Mehmet mended "the radio" Turkish does use an objective (accusative) suffix the. The subject definite article the does not, as a word, exist in Turkish but it does exist as a suffix to specify the object of a verb. In English we make both the subject and object of a sentence substantive by the use of the same definite article the.
Adam kapıyı (kapı-) kapattı The man closed the door. Because the subject is already understood as substantive in Turkish it does not need a definite article. There is no The man as the subject definite article the is already understood in context. However there is an object definite article the in Turkish which appears as the suffix -(y)i, according to vowel harmony:

Formation of the Objective
The object specifier has the form of a suffix (governed by vowel harmony):
-i/-ı/-u/-ü is used with root nouns which end in a consonant or used with extended [already suffixed] nouns which end in a consonant
-yi/-yı/-yu/-yü [buffer letter -y] is only used with root nouns which end in a vowel.
-ni/-nı/-nu/-nü [buffer letter -n] is only used with extended [already suffixed] nouns ending in a vowel.

The Direct Object Pointer suffix -i, -ı, -u, -ü is suffixed directly to all root words which end in a consonant:
ev house, the house evi [ev-i] the house (obj.)
sokak street, the street sokağı [sokağ-ı] the street (obj.) [sokak shows -k to consonant mutation here]
gül rose, the rose gülü [gül-ü] the rose (obj.)

It takes buffer letter -y to become -yi, -yı, -yu, -yü when added to a root word which ends in a vowel:
kedi cat, the cat kediyi [kedi-yi] the cat as an object of a verb
banka bank, the bank bankayı [banka-yı] the bank (obj.)
kutu box, the box kutuyu [kutu-yu] the box (obj.)
The buffer letter -y- is only used with simple nouns ending in a vowel which have not already been suffixed.

It is also suffixed to extended (already suffixed) nouns which end in a consonant:
evim my house evimi [ev-im-i] my house (obj.)
sokağın your street sokağını [sokağ-ın-ı] your street (obj.)
güller roses gülleri [gül-ler-i]- the roses (obj.)

But it takes buffer letter -n- to become -ni, -nı, -nu, -nü when added as a second suffix to an already extended noun.
kedisi his/her cat kedisini [kedisi-n-i] his/her cat as an object
bankası his/her bank bankasını [bankasını] his/her bank an object.
This shift of buffer letter y to n enables the listener to discern that the word is already agglutinated (extended) by previous suffixes. To reiterate: The buffer letter -n- is only used on already extended (suffixed) nouns.

Nouns both bare and extended ending in a consonant.
Adam kilidi (kilid-i) kapattı. THE man locked THE lock.
The -i suffix makes the bare noun THE LOCK substantive as a Direct Object
Adam kilidimi (kilid-im-i) kapattı. THE man locked MY lock.
The -i suffix makes the extended noun MY LOCK substantive as a Direct Object

Nouns both bare and extended ending in a vowel
Adam kapıyı (kapı-yı) kapattı. THE man closed THE door.
The -yı suffix makes the bare noun THE DOOR substantive as a Direct Object
Adam kapısını (kapı-sı-nı) kapattı. THE man closed HIS door.
The -nı suffix makes the extended (already suffixed) noun- HIS DOOR substantive as a Direct Object
The Direct Object Suffix which makes the object substantive is one of the most difficult hurdles for English speakers to surmount when talking, reading, listening and understanding The Turkish Language.

Turkish Motion Towards Condition

Suffix: -(y)e/-(y)a -ne/-na
Formation of the Motion Towards Condition. This takes the form of a suffix governed by Vowel haromy.
-e/-a is used with root nouns which end in a consonant or used with extended [already suffixed] nouns which end in a consonant.
-ye/-ya [buffer letter -y] is only used with root nouns which end in a vowel.
-ne/-na [buffer letter -n] is only used with extended [already suffixed] nouns ending in a vowel.

The Motion Towards suffix -a or -e to, towards is suffixed directly to all root words which end in a consonant:
ev house, the house eve [ev-e] to the house
sokak street, the street sokağa [sokağ-a] to the street
gül rose, the rose güle [gül-e] to the rose

It takes buffer letter -y- when added directly as the first suffix to a root word which ends in a vowel thus taking the form -ye, -ya
kedi cat, the cat kediye [kedi-ye] to the cat
banka bank, the bank bankaya [banka-ya] to the bank

It is also suffixed to extended (already suffixed) nouns which end in a consonant:
evim my house evime [ev-im-e] to my house
sokağın your street sokağına [sokağ-ın-a] to your street

It takes buffer letter -n- when added as a second suffix to an already extended noun thus taking the form -ne, -na.
kedi cat, the cat kedisi [kedi-si] his cat kedisine [kedi-si-ne] to his cat
baba father, the father babaları [baba-ları] their father babalarına [baba-ları-na] to their father
gülleri their roses güllerine [gül-leri-ne]- to their roses
This shift of Buffer Letter -y to -n helps the listener to discern that that noun has already been extended by a previous suffix. To reiterate: The buffer letter -n- is only used on already extended (suffixed) nouns.

adama [adam-a] to the man
adamlara [adamlar-a] to the men
kediye [kedi-ye] to the cat
kedi cat ends in a vowel so "kedi-y-e" is used [kedie] would be incorrect.
kedilere [kediler-e] to the cats
eve [ev-e] to home
evlere [evler-e] to the houses
kapıya [kapı-ya] to the door
kapı door ends in a vowel so "kapı-y-a" is used [kapıa] would be incorrect
kapılara [kapılar-a] to the doors

Turkish Static Position Condition (Locative)

Suffix: -de/-da, -te/-ta, -nde/-nda
The Static Position (Locative) Suffix de/da in, on, at. This suffix shows concrete place (location):

Any suffix appended to a soft word ending must begin with a soft consonant -d

odadayım [oda-da-yım]- I am in the room
Ali bey, evdeymiş. [ev-de-ymiş] Ali bey must be at home [-imiş inference]
adamda [adam-da] on the man
adamlarda [adamlar-da] on the men
kedide [kedi-de] on the cat
kedilerde [kediler-de] on the cats
evde [ev-de] at home
evlerde [evler-de] at the houses
kapıda [kapı-da] at the door
kapılarda [kapılar-da] at/by the doors
köprüde [köprü-de] on the bridge
köprülerde [köprüler-de] on the bridges
odada [oda-da] in the room
odalarda [odalar-da] in the rooms
For the plural we have added two suffixes -ler (Plural Suffix) and -de (Static Location Suffix) or -lar and -da and tagged them together to make one word in Turkish.

Any suffix appended to a hard word ending in (p ç t k s ş h f) must begin with a hard consonant -t

  • kitap book
  • kitapta [kitap-ta] in the book but in the plural kitaplarda [kitap-lar-da] in the books
  • kitabımda [kitab-ım-da ] in my book but in the plural kitaplarımda [kitap-lar ım-da] in my books
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  • raf shelf
  • rafta [raf-ta] on the shelf plural raflarda [raf-lar-da] on the shelves
  • (onun) rafında [onun raf-ı-nda] on his shelves plural onun raflarında [onun raf-lar-ı-nda] on his shelves
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  • günah sin
  • günahta [günah-ta] in the sin plural günahlarda [günah-lar-da] in the sins
  • (benim) günahımda [günah-ım-da] in my sin plural günahlarımda [günah-lar-ım-da] in my sins
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  • giriş entrance
  • girişte [giriş-te]- in the entrance plural girişlerde [giriş-ler-de] in the entrances
  • (onların) girişlerinde [giriş-leri-nde] in their entrance plural girişlerinde [giriş-leri-nde] in their entrances
  • (no change as -ler suffix is not reduplicated in Turkish, so the meaning has to be understood from the sentence context.)
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  • domates tomato
  • domateste [domates-te] on the tomato plural domateslerde [domates-ler-de] on the tomatoes
  • (senin) domatesinde [domates-in-de] on your tomato plural domateslerinde [domates-ler-in-de] in your tomatoes
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  • kaşık spoon
  • kaşıkta [kaşık-ta] in the spoon plural kaşıklarda [kaşık-lar-da] in the spoons
  • (bizim) kaşığımızda [kaşığ-ımız-da] on our spoon plural kaşıklarımızda [kaşık-lar-ımız-da] in our spoons
  • Hard -k softens to soft when followed by a vowel.
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  • bilet ticket
  • bilette [bilet-te] on the ticket plural biletlerde [bilet-ler-de] on the tickets
  • (sizin) biletinizde [bilet-iniz-de] on your (formal) ticket plural biletlerinizde [bilet-ler-iniz-de] on your (formal) tickets
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  • kazanç profit, gain
  • kazançta [kazanç-ta] in the profit plural kazançlarda [kazanç-lar-da] in the profits
  • (onun) kazancında [kazanc-ı-nda] in its profit plural (onun) kazançlarında [kazanç-lar-ı-nda] in its profits
  • (Hard softens to soft -cında when followed by a vowel.)

Turkish Movement Away Suffix [ablative]

Suffix: -den/-dan, -ten/-tan, -nden/-ndan
The movement away -den/-dan from, by, via, through. This suffix show movement from a location.

(Any suffix appended to a soft word ending must begin with a soft consonant -d )

adamdan [adam-dan] from the man
adamlardan [adamlar-da] from the men
kediden [kedi-den] from the cat
kedilerden [kediler-den] from the cats
evden [ev-den] from home
evlerden [evler-den] from the houses
kapıdan [kapı-dan] from the door
kapılardan [kapılar-dan] from the doors
köprüden [köprü-den] from the bridge
köprülerden [köprüler-den] from the bridges
odadan [oda-dan] from the room
odalardan [odalar-dan] from the rooms
For the plural we have added two suffixes -ler (Plural Suffix) and -den (Movement Away Suffix) or -lar and -dan and tagged them altogether to make one word in Turkish.

Any suffix appended to a hard word ending in (p ç t k s ş h f) must begin with a hard consonant -t)

  • kitap book
  • kitaptan [kitap-tan] from the book but in the plural kitaplardan [kitap-lar-dan] from the books
  • kitabımdan [kitab-ım-dan ] from my book but in the plural kitaplarımdan [kitap-lar ım-dan] from my books
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  • raf shelf
  • raftan [raf-tan] from the shelf plural raflardan [raf-lar-dan] from the shelves
  • (onun) rafından [(onun) raf-ı-ndan] from his shelves plural (onun) raflarından [(onun) raf-lar-ı-ndan] from his shelves
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  • günah sin
  • günahtan [günah-tan] from the sin plural günahlardan [günah-lar-dan] from the sins
  • (benim) günahımdan [günah-ım-dan] from my sin plural (benim) günahlarımdan [günah-lar-ım-dan] from my sins
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  • giriş entrance
  • girişten [giriş-ten] from/via the entrance plural girişlerden [giriş-ler-den] from/via the entrances
  • (onların) girişlerinden [giriş-leri-nden] from/via their entrance plural girişlerinden [giriş-leri-nden] from/via their entrances
  • (no change as -ler suffix is not reduplicated in Turkish, so the meaning has to be understood from the sentence context.)
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  • domates tomato
  • domatesten [domates-ten] from the tomato plural domateslerden [domates-ler-den] from the tomatoes
  • (senin) domatesinden [domates-in-den] from your tomato plural domateslerinden [domates-ler-in-den] from your tomatoes
  • Domates (Gr.) is a single tomato in Turkish. The plural is domatesler tomatoes! Do not get mixed up!!
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  • kaşık spoon
  • kaşıktan [kaşık-tan] from the spoon plural kaşıklardan [kaşık-lar-dan] from the spoons
  • (bizim) kaşığımızdan [kaşığ-ımız-dan] from our spoon plural kaşıklarımızdan [kaşık-lar-ımız-dan] from our spoons
  • Hard -k softens to soft when followed by a vowel.
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  • bilet ticket
  • biletten [bilet-ten] from the ticket plural biletlerden [bilet-ler-den] from the tickets
  • (sizin) biletinizden [bilet-iniz-den] from your (formal) ticket plural biletlerinizden [bilet-ler-iniz-den] from your (formal) tickets
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  • kazanç profit, gain
  • kazançtan [kazanç-tan] from the profit plural kazançlardan [kazanç-lar-dan] from the profits
  • (onun) kazancından [kazanc-ı-ndan] from its profit plural (onun) kazançlarından [kazanç-lar-ı-ndan] fromits profits
  • (Hard softens to soft -cında when followed by a vowel.)

Turkish Suffix of Ownership (Genitive Case)

The form of the ownership suffix is: -in or -nin [using buffer letter -n-] when added to words which already end in a vowel, meaning of, belonging to. This suffix is used for ownership. This suffix is also used grammatically in Turkish to form the Possessive Relationship, which is very important in the Turkish Language. The Possessive Relationship is dealt with at length elsewhere. The sign of the Ownership suffix is -in which is added to the noun, singular, plural or extended forms. It is subject to Vowel Harmony, the Vowel Harmonized forms become -(n)in -(n)ın -(n)ün -(n)un of , belonging to.

A sole exception su water
The word su water. The translation for of the water is not "sunun", it is suyun with exceptional buffer letter -y which is always used with the word su water. This exception also applies to the Possessed Case you cannot say for Fruit Juice "Meyve Susu" as the buffer letter -y- is always used with the word su water consequently Meyve Suyu is the correct way to say Fruit Juice.

Formation of the Ownership Suffix
The suffix -in/-ın/-un/-ün is added to the noun.
ev house
evin [ev-in] the house's, of the house
evimin [ev-im-in] my house's, of my house
evinin [ev-in-in] your house's, of your house
memurun [memur-un] the official's, of the official
gözün [göz-ün] the eye's, of the eye
gözlerimin [gözler-im-in] my eyes', of my eyes
akşamın [akşam-ın] the evening's, of the evening
tavuğun [tavuğ-un] the chicken's, of the chicken
bakkalın [bakkal-ın] the grocer's, of the grocer
The Plural Suffix is added as first suffix. The Possessive Adjective is added secondly, and finally the Ownersip indicating Possession.

The Ownership Suffix Nouns ending in Vowels
The Suffix changes to -nin/-nın/-nun/-nün of or belonging to using buffer -n- in order to keep two vowels apart
kedinin [kedi-n-in] of the cat, the cat's
kedilerinin [kedi-leri-n-in] their cat's, of their cat
kedisinin [kedi-si-n-in] of his cat, his cat's
bankanın [banka-n-ın] the bank's
bankasının [banka-sı-n-ın] his bank's
köprünün [köprü-n-ün] the bridge's
Ali 'nin [Ali-'n-in] Ali's
Londra 'nın [Londra-'n-ın] London's
All suffixes are written apart from any Proper Name which begins with a capital letter. The last two examples above show this accordingly

Turkish Ownership Suffix with Extended words (already suffixed)
The suffix -in -ın -ün -un of , belonging to always takes buffer letter -n- to become -nin -nın -nün -nun when added either to a root word or to an extended word which ends in a vowel.
kedinin [kedi-nin] the cat's kedisinin [kedi-si-nin] his cat's
bankanın of the bank bankasının of his bank
arabanın the car's arabasının his car's..
Ali 'nin Ali 's Ayşe 'nin Ayshe 's
köprünün of the bridge köprülerinin of their bridges
The suffix -in always becomes -nin whether suffixed to a Simple Noun or to an already suffixed noun.

Turkish with Condition (instumental)

Suffix: -le/-la with, and, also
The word for with in Turkish is ile this is one word which can stand on its own after the word it modifies. In which case it does not follow vowel harmony rules but is always written and spoken ile.
Mehmed ile [Mehmed ile] with Mehmet or Mehmet'le [Mehmet-'le] with Mehmet
gözlerim ile [gözler-im ile] with my eyes or gözlerimle [gözler-im-le] with my eyes
domuzla [domuz-la] with the pig or domuz ile [domuz ile] with a (any) pig
domuzuyla [domuz-u-yla] with the pig or domuzu [domuz-u ile] with the pig
arkadaşınla [arkadaş-ın-la] with your friend or arkadaşın ile [arkadaş-ın ile] with your friend

Using ile with words which end in a vowel:
When adding ile to words that end in a vowel the initial letter -i of -ile changes to a buffer letter -y in order to keep two vowels apart thus the forms -yla and -yle are used.
paltosuyla [palto-su-yla] with his overcoat
bir arabayla [bir araba-yla] with a car
kediyle [kedi-yle] with the cat
kedisiyle [kedi-si-yle] with his cat
iskemleyle [iskemle-yle] with the chair
eliyle [el-i-yle] with his hand
elleriyle [eller-i-yle] with his hands
babasıyla [baba-sı-yla] with his father
If the suffixed form is used then it changes to -yle -yla after vowels. As previously stated, whether to use ile as stand alone or as a suffix is a free choice of the speaker or writer, but there is a change in the meaning:

Translation of ile and, also
When it stands between two nouns the suffix ile can be used to translate and when the basic meaning is with, also. Even when it is suffixed as -le/-la or -yle -yla [when added to vowel] it is still translated as and meaning "also".
Masada fincanla tabaklar var. There are cups and plates on the table.
Ali ile arkadaşı , odaya girdi Ali and his friend entered the room.
Mustafa ile Selim partiye gitti. Mustapha and Selim went to the party.

If the suffix -le/-la does not come between the nouns then it is translated as with, together with.
Benimle Mehmet geldi. Mehmet came with me. [LIT: With me Mehmet came.]
Ali arkadaşıyla , odaya girdi. Ali entered the room with his friend.
Mustafa, Selim 'le partiye gitti. Mustapha went to the party with Selim.

Explanation :
If ile is in between two people or things as in Ali ile arkadaşı; Mustafa ile Selim then these sentences are translated into English by the conjunction "and" Ali and his friends; Mustafa and Selim.
If ile does not in between two nouns it is translated by "with" Ali went to party with his friend.
Toplantıya sekreterimle katıldım. I attended the meeting with my secretary.
Patron ile adamları aniden silahlarını çektiler. The boss and his men suddenly pulled their guns.

Note that in this type of sentence above ve and, also could be used in place of ile
Ali ve arkadaşı odaya girdi.
Mustafa ve Selim partiye gitti.
Masada fincan ve tabak var.

For the other sentences ve cannot be used in place of ile.
Benimle Mehmet geldi ["ve" can not be used] ; Ali, arkadaşıyla odaya girdi. ["ve" can not be used.]

Turkish Lacking Condition "without"

Suffix: -siz -sız -süz -suz without, un-, non-, -less, dis-
This suffix gives the sense of lacking. In English it can be translated as un- as in unavailable or -less as in worthless or dis- as in distaste.
ehliyet licence ehliyetsiz unlicensed [ehliyetli licensed]
renk colour renksiz colourless [renkli coloured]
sabır patience sabırsız impatient [sabırlı patient]
işaret sign işaretsiz unsigned [işaretli signed]
ses noise sessiz noiseless [sesli noisy]
şeker sugar şekersiz unsugared [şekerli sugared, sweetened]
namus honesty namussuz dishonest [namuslu honest]
Bir çay, şekersiz olsun, lütfen. A tea, no sugar, please.
Sonsuz bir yolculuk gibiydi. It was like an endless journey.
Sensiz gidiyorum. I'm going without you.
Değersiz bir saat aldım. I bought a worthless watch.
İçkisiz bir aile gazinosuna gittik. We went to a non-alcoholic family restaurant.
Note: içkisiz without alcoholic drinks [ie: Alcohol is not served] is seen on many Public Signs

Plural nouns are formed by adding the -ler/-lar plural suffix to an adjective:
sabırsızlar the impatient ones
şekersizler the unsugared ones
renksizler the uncoloured/colourless ones

Turkish Containing Condition

Suffix: -li -lı -lü -lu originating from, furnished with, place of,
This suffix gives the sense of belonging to something or somewhere. It is used with place names especially to say where one is from. The -li suffix is not separated from a Proper Noun by an apostrophe as other suffixes generally are "Londra'lı" would be incorrect Londralı is correct.
Londralı [Londra-lı] a Londoner
Londralılar [Londra-lı-lar] Londoners
İstanbullu [İstanbul-lu] an Istanbuli
İstanbullular [İstanbul-lu-lar] Istanbulis
İngiltereliyim [İngiltere-li-yim] I am from England
Bolulu [Bolu-lu] a person from Bolu
Çinli [Çin-li] a Chinese Man (Chinaman)
This suffix also gives the sense of belonging to something or somewhere, it is widely used with place names especially to say where one is from:
İngiltereliyim. I am from England.
Mançesterliyim. I come from Manchester.
Nerelisiniz? Where (exactly) are you from?

An Actual Example of the "containing" suffix.

A billboard shows available sandwich fillings
. Sandwichboard Advert

karışık mixed
kaşarlı [kaşar-lı] containing hard cheese
sucuklu [sucuk-lu] containing Turkish type sausage
salamlı [salam-lı] containing salami
sosisli [sosis-li] containing sausage
Due to vowel harmony -li has three of its four forms

The meaning of furnished with is used to make attributive adjectives tuz salt giving tuzlu salty is a prime example. Should you use sugar in your tea then you might ask for şekerli çay which can mean sweet tea, sugared tea, sugary tea, according to context.
sabır patience sabırlı patient
kuvvet strength kuvvetli strong
yaprak leaf yapraklı leafy
çimen lawn çimenli having a lawn
yaş age yaşlı old
renk colour renkli coloured
ses noise sesli noisy
yatak bed yataklı furnished with a bed
tuz salt tuzlu salty

Mehmet sabırlı bir adamdır. Mehmet is a patient man.
Ali kuvvetli bir genç. Ali is a strong youth.
Bir yapraklı ağaç. A leafy tree.
Çimenli bir ev. It is a house with a lawn.
Yaşlı bir at. It is an old horse.
İçkili bir lokantaya gittik. We went to an alcohol serving bistro.
Note: içkili furnished with alcoholic drinks [ie: Alcoholic drinks are served]

Plural nouns are formed by adding the -ler/-lar plural suffix to an adjective:
sabırlılar the patient ones
kuvvetliler the strong ones
yaşlılar the aged

Turkish Dependent Adverbs

Some Turkish adverbs require that the preceding noun have the Motion Towards [dative] -e/-ye, -a/-ya to/toward suffix:

-e nazaran compared with

buna nazaran compared to this
bunlara nazaran compared to these
şuna nazaran compared to that
şunlara nazaran compared to those
ona nazaran compared to that
onlara nazaran compared to those

Düne nazaran bugün hava daha güzel Compared to yesterday, the weather is better today.
Rakiplerine nazaran ücretsizdir. Compared to the competitors it is price free.

-e kadar up to, until, as far as.

şimdiye kadar. [şimdi-ye kadar] up to now.
Ankara'ya kadar. as far as Ankara.
Gelecek pazara kadar bekleyelim. Let us wait until next Sunday.
Çarşıya kadar gidiyorum. I am going as far as the shops.

-e doğru straight toward.

bankaya doğru [banka-ya doğru] straight to the bank
Eve doğru git! Go staight home!
Evden okula doğru gidin. Go straight to school from home.

-e göre according to, compared to

bana göre according to me
sana göre according to you
Memed'e göre according to Mehemet
Yeni plâna göre, evimizin arka bahçesi küçültülecekmiş. According to the new plan our back garden will be made smaller.

-e karşı against

duvara karşı [duvar-a karşı] against the wall
rüzgara karşı [rüzgar-a karşı] against the wind
Garajın kapısına karşı bisikletimi bırakmışım. I believe I left my bicycle against the garage door.

-e rağmen (arb.) or -e karşın. (tur.) in spite of (pos.), despite (neg.)

buna rağmen/buna karşın in spite of this, bunlara rağmen in spite of these
şuna rağmen in spite of that, şunlara rağmen in spite of those
ona rağmen in spite of that, onlara rağmen in spite of those
Her şeye rağmen/karşın başarabilirdik. In spite of everything we were able to succeed.
Havanın kararmasına rağmen/karşın, yollarına hâlâ yürüyerek devam ediyorlardı. Despite the weather getting worse, they still carried on walking along the road.

An actual newspaper article, Peugeot Crisis
İSTANBUL, 5 Mart (Reuters) Fransız otomotiv üreticisi Peugeot'nun CEO'su Jean Philleppe Colin, krize rağmen Türkiye'ye ilişkin yatırım projelerinin devam ettiğini, kompakt sedan sınıfı araçların Türkiye'de üretimi için fizibilite çalışmaları yaptıklarını söyledi.
ISTANBUL, 5 March (Reuters) The CEO of French car producer Peugeot Jean Philleppe Colin has said that in spite of the crisis, that the investment project concerning the compact sedan class vehicles' production in Turkey feasibility studies are on-going.
Peugeot krize rağmen [kriz-e rağmen] Türkiye'ye yatırım projesini sürdürüyor.
In spite of the Peugeot crisis the investment project is still carrying on for Turkey.

Turkish Dependent Adverbs with -den/-dan

These adverbs require that the preceding noun have the motion away -den/-dan, -ten/-tan from suffix:
-dan dolayı because of.
-dan başka except for, apart from, other than.
-dan beri since.
-dan önce before (in time). this is modern Turkish, and is the preferred form
-dan evvel before (in time). this is the older from from Arabic, but still often used
-dan sonra after.

Bundan dolayı because of this
Mehmet'in yaptıklarından dolayı asla başaramayız! Because of what Mehmet did we will never be able succeed.

ondan başka except for that
Piyanomdan başka her şeyi geri bırakacağım. Except for my piano I will leave everything behind.

Ondan beri since then
saat üçten beri since 3 o'clock. (üç-ten beri)
saat üçten beri sizi arıyordum. I have been looking for you since three o'clock.
Geçen haftadan beri hastayım. I have been ill since last week./I have been ill for a week.

şundan önce/evvel before that (in time)
Mayıs ayından evvel/önce mühendis olarak çalışıyordum/çalışmaktaydım. Before May I was working as an engineer.

Ondan sonra after that
Haziran ayından sonra emekli olacağım. After July I shall retire (from work).