Turkish Possessive Adjective my, your, his, our, their

Examples of the Suffixed Possessive Adjectives -im -ım -üm my

Question: Which cat? Answer: my cat.

The word "my is a Possessive Adjective describing the noun cat.

The Turkish suffix -ım -im -um -üm is added to final consonants:

kolum
[kol-um] my arm

The leading vowel is dropped from the "-im" suffix -m when added nouns ending in a vowel:

arabam
[araba-m] my car

Turkish Possessive Adjective Reference Summary

The suffixes for all the persons: my, your, his, our, your, their

  • Possessive Adjective Reference
  • my
    ‑ım ‑im ‑um ‑üm
    After vowels: -m
  • your
    ‑ın ‑in ‑un ‑ün
    After vowels: -n your
  • his her its
    ‑ı ‑i ‑u ‑ü
    After vowels: ‑sı ‑si ‑su‑ ‑sü
  • our
    ‑ımız ‑imiz ‑umuz ‑ümüz
    After vowels: ‑mız ‑miz ‑muz ‑müz
  • your
    ‑ınız ‑iniz ‑unuz ‑ünüz
    After vowels: ‑nız ‑niz ‑nuz ‑nüz
  • their
    ‑ları ‑leri
  • The E-Dotted Vowels Singular
  • elelim my hand
  • dişdişim my tooth
  • gözgözüm my eye
  • gülgülüm my rose
  • The E-Dotted Vowels Plural
  • ellerellerin your hands
  • dişlerdişlerin your teeth
  • gözlergözleriniz your (pl.) eyes
  • güllergülleri his / their roses
  • The A-UnDotted Vowels Singular
  • ayayım my month
  • kızkızın your daughter
  • dostdostu his / her pal
  • sabunsabunum my soap
  • The A-UnDotted Vowels Plural
  • aylaraylarımız our months
  • kızlarkızlarımız our daughters
  • dostlardostları his / their pals
  • mektuplarmektuplarım my books
The Plural suffix is always added first.

The Possessive Suffix follows the Plural Suffix.

  • ellerim my hands
    [el-ler-im]
  • odalarımız our rooms
    [oda-lar-ımız]
Adding the Possessive Adjective to words that end in a vowel
  • When the word ends in a vowel then the Possessive Suffix drops its own initial vowel.
  • kedi catkedim
    [kedi-m] my cat
  • The Possessive Suffix does not lose its vowel when attached to the plural of a noun.
    It follows the final consonant of -ler -lar
  • kediler catskedilerim
    [kedi-ler-im] my cats
  • The Third Person Singular Possessive Suffix -i his, her, its becomes -si [uses Buffer Letter -s-] when added to a noun ending in a vowel.
  • oda roomodası
    [oda-s-ı] his room

Buffer letter -s- is used to keep two vowels apart.

The single exception su water

The word su water is the single irregular noun in Turkish.
It takes a buffer letter -y- with all its suffixes.

  • su water
  • suyum my water
  • suyun your water
  • suyu his water
  • suyumuz our water
  • suyunuz your water
  • suları their water

Turkish Consonant Mutation when adding Suffixes

  • Mutation: p ⇔ b
  • kitap bookkitabım my bookkitaplarım my books
  • Mutation: k ⇔ ğ
  • sokak streetsokağım my streetsokaklarım my streets
  • Mutation: t ⇔ d
  • armut peararmudu his peararmutları his pears/their pear(s)
  • This example armutları his pears/their pear(s) can be construed three ways:
  • armutlar -ı his pearsarmut -ları their pear OR their pears
  • The plural -lar suffix cannot be re-duplicated. ["armutlarları"is wrong.]
    The context usually makes clear the singularity or plurality of the noun:
    To be explicit then onun his or onların their can be used:
  • onun armudu his pear
    [he has singular pear]
  • onun armutları his pears
    [he has plural pears]
  • onların armudu their pear
    [they have a singular pear]
  • onların armutları their pears
    [they have plural pears]

Turkish Possessive Adjectives showing difference of Singular and Plural Nouns

Vowel Harmony must be observed when suffixing singular or plural words.

  • kapı door
  • kapım my door
  • kapılarım my doors
  • bahçe garden
  • bahçem my garden
  • bahçelerim my gardens
  • oda room
  • odası his room
  • odaları his rooms
  • aile family
  • ailesi his family
  • aileleri their family/families
  • araba car
  • arabamız our car
  • arabalarımız our cars
  • otobüs bus
  • otobüsümüz our bus
  • otobüslerimiz our buses
  • kulak ear
  • kulağınız your ear
  • kulaklarınız your ears
  • şemsiye umbrella
  • şemsiyeniz your umbrella
  • şemsiyeleriniz your umbrellas
  • domuz pig
  • domuzu his pig
  • onun domuzları his pigs
    [domuzlar-ı]
  • onların domuzları their pig(s)
    [domuz-ları]
  • göz eye
  • gözü his eye
  • onun gözleri his eyes
    [gözler-i]
  • onların gözleri their eye(s)
    [göz-leri]

Turkish Suffixed Possessed Nouns - Extended

A noun with the possessive suffix being a noun in its own right can be subject to further suffixes.

Buffer letter -n- is used when adding second suffixes to possessed items.

For third person singular his, her, its and third person plural their:

  • arabasına
    [araba-sı-n-a] to his/her car
  • elmalarından
    [elma-ları-n-dan] from their apple(s)
  • kedi cat. Singular kedi ends in a vowel so only suffix -m is added:
  • kedim my cat
    [kedi-m]
  • kedimden from my cat
    [kedi-m-den]
  • kedime to my cat
    [kedi-m-e]
  • kediler cats. Plural kediler ends in a consonant so suffix -im is added:
  • kedilerim my cats
    [kedi-ler-im]
  • kedilerimden from my cats
    [kedi-ler-im-den]
  • kedilerime to my cats
    [kedi-ler-im-e]
  • araba car. Singular araba ends in a vowel so only suffix -n is added:
  • araban your car
    [araba-n]
  • arabana to your car
    [araba-n-a]
  • arabanda in your car
    [araba-n-da]
  • arabalar cars. Plural arabalar ends in a consonant so total suffix -ım is added:
  • arabaların your cars
    [araba-lar-ın]
  • arabalarına to your cars
    [araba-lar-ın-a]
  • arabalarında in your cars
    [araba-lar-ın-da]
  • elma apple ends in a vowel so third person suffix using buffer letter -sı is added:
  • onun elması his apple
    [elma-s-ı]
  • onun elmasında in his apple
    [elma-s-ı-n-da]
  • onun elmasından from his apple
    [elma-s-ı-n-dan]
  • onun his used to show that this apple belongs to one person.
  • elmalar apples
  • onun elmaları his apples
    [elma-lar-ı]
  • onun elmalarında in his apples
    [elma-lar-ı-n-da]
  • onların elmasında in their apple
    [elma-s-ı-n-da]
  • onların elmasından from their apple
    [elma-s-ı-n-da]
  • onların elmaları their apples
    [elma-ları]
  • onların elmalarında in their apples
    [elma-ları-n-da]
  • onların elmalarından from their apples
    [elma-ları-n-dan]
  • onların their is used to show that this/these apple(s) belongs to more than one person.
  • köy village
  • köyümüz our village
    [köy-ümüz]
  • köyümüzde in our village
    [köy-ümüz-de]
  • köyümüzden from our village
    [köy-ümüz-den]
  • köyler villages
  • köylerimiz our villages
    [köy-ler-imiz]
  • köylerimizde in our villages
    [köy-ler-imiz-de]
  • köylerimizden from our villages
    [köy-ler-imiz-den]
  • köpek dog
  • köpeğiniz your dog
    [köpeğ-iniz]
  • köpeğinizde on your dog
    [köpeğ-iniz-de]
  • köpeğinize to your dog
    [köpeğ-iniz-e]
The Rule of Consonant Mutation -k changes to is operating here when a vowel suffix is being added to a hard consonant.
  • köpekler dogs
  • köpekleri their dogs
    [köpek-leri]
  • köpeklerine to his dogs
    [köpek-ler-i-n-e]
  • OR to their dog(s)
    [köpek-leri-n-e]
  • köpeklerinden from their dogs
    [köpek-leri-n-den]
  • ev house
  • onların evi their house
    [ev-i]
  • onların evine to their house
    [ev-i-n-e]
  • onların evlerinde in their houses
    [ev-leri-n-de]
  • onların evlerinden from their houses
    [ev-leri-n-den]
  • evler houses
  • onun evleri his houses
    [ev-ler-i]
  • onun evlerinde in his houses
    [ev-ler-i-n-de]
  • onun evlerinden from his houses
    [ev-ler-i-n-den]

A reminder about buffer letter -N-

A noun with the possessive suffix can be subject to further suffixes.

Buffer letter -n- is used when adding second suffixes to possessed noun.