The Possessive Adjective

All about Possessive Adjectives - my, your, her, our, etc:
The Possessive Adjective - my, your, his, her ,our, their - is a suffix which obeys vowel harmony rules. It is called a Possessive Adjective because it shows possession and describes a noun.
Which cat? - the answer - my cat. The word - my - is a Possessive Adjective describing the noun - cat.
In Turkish the suffix -ım,-im,-um,-üm added to words ending in a consonant or just -m when added to words ending in a vowel means - my.

Examples of the Suffixed Possessive Adjective - my

The E-Dotted VowelsSingularThe E-Dotted VowelsPlural
elhandelimmy hand
diştoothdişimmy tooth
gözeyegözümmy eye
gülrosegülümmy rose
ellerhandsellerimmy hands
dişlerteethdişlerimmy teeth
gözlereyesgözlerimmy eyes
güllerrosesgüllerimmy roses
The A-UnDotted VowelsSingularThe A-UnDotted VowelsPlural
aymonth, moonayımmy month
kızgirl, daughterkızımmy daughter
tosttoasttostummy toast
sabunsoapsabunummy soap
aylarmonths, moonsaylarımmy months
kızlargirls, daughterskızlarımmy daughters
tostlartoasts (slices of)tostlarımmy toast(s) (slices of)
sabunlar(bars of) soap(s)sabunlarımmy soap(s) (bars of.)

Adding Suffixes

The Plural is always the First Suffix Added. The Possessive Suffix follows the Plural Suffix. Examples of tbe plural and additional suffixes:
ellerim - [el-ler-im] - my hands
odalarımız - [oda-lar-ımız] - our rooms

Thanks J. R. for correction - Oct 2005

Adding the Possessive Adjective to words that end in a vowel
When the word ends in a vowel then the Possessive Suffix drops its own initial vowel.
kedi - cat
kedim - [kedi-m] - my cat
But the Possessive Suffix does not lose a vowel when attached to the plural of a noun as it follows the final consonant of -ler
kediler - cats
kedilerim - [kedi-ler-im] - my cats

The Third Person Singular Possessive Suffix -i becomes -si (uses Buffer Letter -s-) when added to a noun ending in a vowel.
oda - room
odası - oda-s-ı - his room
This example shows the addition of the buffer letter -s- in order to keep two vowels apart.

Possessive Adjective Reference Summary

The suffixes for all the persons viz: my, your, his, our, your, their - are as follows. Note that they all obey Vowel Harmony Rules.

Suffixed to ConsonantsMeaningSuffixed to Vowels
-ım -im -um -ümmy-m
-ın -in -un -ünyour-n
-ı -i -u -ühis/her/its-sı -si -su- -sü
-ımız -imiz -umuz -ümüzour-mız- miz -muz -müz
-ınız -iniz -unuz -ünüzyour-nız -niz -nuz -nüz
-ları -leritheir-ları -leri

The single exception - su - water

The word su - water is the single irregular noun in Turkish. It takes a buffer letter -y- with all its suffixes.
su - water, suyum - my water, suyun - your water, suyu - his water, suyumuz - our water, suyunuz - your water, suları - their water.

Some Examples showing Consonant Mutation when adding Suffixes

palto - overcoat
paltom - my overcoat
paltolarım - my overcoats

sokak - street
sokağım - my street
sokaklarım - my streets

göz - eye
gözün - your eye
gözleriniz - your eyes

armut - pear
armudu - his pear
armutları - his pears/their pear(s)
The last example (armutları - his pears/their pear(s)) above can be construed three ways :
armutlar -ı - his pears
armut -ları - their pear OR their pears ["armutlarları" - is wrong, the -lar suffix cannot be re-duplicated]. The context of conversation is usually enough for the correct interpretation to be understood.

It seems that "their pears" should be "armutlarları", but suffixes ending in -lar are never doubled, therefore the context should make clear the singularity or plurality of the noun.
However, to be explicit then - onun - his - or - onların - their - can be used:
onun armudu - his pear - [he has singular pear]
onun armutları - his pears - [he has plural pears]
onların armudu - their pear - [they have a singular pear]
onların armutları - their pears - [they have plural pears]

Examples showing difference of singular and plural nouns
arabacarodaroomailefamily
arabamızour carodasıhis roomailesihis family
arabalarımızour carsodalarıhis roomsaileleritheir family/families
otobüsbusşemsiyeumbrellakulakear
otobüsümüzour busşemsiyenizyour umbrellakulağınızyour ear
otobüslerimizour busesşemsiyelerinizyour umbrellaskulaklarınızyour ears
domuzpigkapıdoorgözeye
domuzuhis pigkapımmy doorgözlerihis eyes/their eye(s)
domuzlarıhis pigs/their pig(s)kapılarımmy doorsgözlerihis eyes/their eye(s)

The addition of further suffixes to the possessed noun:

A noun with the possessive suffix being a noun in its own right can be subject to further suffixes. Buffer letter -n- is used when adding second suffixes to possessed items for third person singular - his, her, its - and third person plural - their :
arabasına [araba-sı-n-a] - to his/her car
elmalarından [elma-ları-n-dan] - from their apple(s}

Here are some examples of extended possessed nouns where further suffixes have been added to make a new word.
kedi - cat - Singular - * kedi ends in a vowel so only suffix -m is added
kedim - my cat - [kedi-m]
kedimden - from my cat - [kedi-m-den]
kedime - to my cat - [kedi-m-e]

kediler - cats - Plural - * kediler ends in a consonant so suffix -im is added
kedilerim - my cats - [kedi-ler-im]
kedilerimden - from my cats - [kedi-ler-im-den]
kedilerime - to my cats - [kedi-ler-im-e]

araba - car - * araba ends in a vowel so only suffix -n is added
araban - your car - [araba-n]
arabana - to your car - [araba-n-a]
arabanda - in your car - [araba-n-da]

arabalar - cars - * arabalar ends in a consonant so total suffix -ım is added
arabaların - your cars - [araba-lar-ın]
arabalarına - to your cars - [araba-lar-ın-a]
arabalarında - in your cars - [araba-lar-ın-da]

elma - apple - * elma ends in a vowel so third person suffix - using buffer letter -sı is added
onun elması - his apple - [elma-s-ı]
onun elmasında - in his apple - [elma-s-ı-n-da]
onun elmasından - from his apple - [elma-s-ı-n-dan]
Note: onun - his - is used to show that this apple belongs to one person

Remind me about buffer letter -n-

A noun with the possessive suffix can be subject to further suffixes. Buffer letter -n- is used when adding second suffixes third person singular - his, her, its - and third person plural - their

elmalar - apples
onun elmaları - his apples - [elma-lar-ı]
onun elmalarında - in his apples - [elma-lar-ı-n-da]
onların elmasında - in their apple - [elma-s-ı-n-da]
onların elmasından - from their apple - [elma-s-ı-n-da]
onların elmaları - their apples - [elma-ları]
onların elmalarında - in their apples - [elma-ları-n-da]
onların elmalarından - from their apples - [elma-ları-n-dan]
Note: onların - their is used to show that this/these apple(s) belongs to more than one person

köy - village
köyümüz - our village - [köy-ümüz]
köyümüzde - in our village - [köy-ümüz-de]
köyümüzden - from our village - [köy-ümüz-den]

köyler - villages
köylerimiz - our villages - [köy-ler-imiz]
köylerimizde - in our villages - [köy-ler-imiz-de]
köylerimizden - from our villages - [köy-ler-imiz-den]

köpek - dog
köpeğiniz - your dog - [köpeğ-iniz]
köpeğinizde - on your dog - [köpeğ-iniz-de]
köpeğinize - to your dog - [köpeğ-iniz-e]
Note: The Rule of Consonant Mutation - -k changes to - is operating here when a vowel suffix is being added to a hard consonant.

köpekler - dogs
köpekleri - their dogs - [köpek-leri]
köpeklerine - to his dogs - [köpek-ler-i-n-e] or to their dog(s) - [köpek-leri-n-e]
köpeklerinden - from their dogs - [köpek-leri-n-den]

ev - house
onların evi - their house - [ev-i]
onların evine - to their house - [ev-i-n-e]
onların evlerinde - in their houses - [ev-leri-n-de]
onların evlerinden - from their houses - [ev-leri-n-den]

evler - houses
onun evleri - his houses - [ev-ler-i]
onun evlerinde - in his houses - [ev-ler-i-n-de]
onun evlerinden - from his houses - [ev-ler-i-n-den]

Remind me again about buffer letter -N-

A noun with the possessive suffix can be subject to further suffixes. Buffer letter -n- is used when adding second suffixes to possessed nouns and also for third person singular - his, her, its - and third person plural - their - suffixes.