Participles > Turkish Object Participles (-dik)

Turkish Object Participles

This participle is used for both present and past Tenses.

A participle is an adjective which is formed from a verb.

It precedes the noun which it describes.

Being a relative participle it can also serve as a noun.

It can have the personal suffixes and the suffixes of declension added to forming a relative adjectival description.

It is used for both the present and past tenses.

The context of the situation pertaining will tell which tense to use in English.

Turkish Object Participle Formation

Verbs drop the infinitive sign -mek/-mak whıch is replaced with:

‑dik / ‑tik ‑dık / ‑tık ‑dük / ‑tük ‑duk / ‑tuk

  • gelmek to come
    geldik
    that came / that which is coming
  • gülmek to laugh
    güldük
    that laughed / that which laughs
  • bakmak to look
    baktık
    that looked at / that which looks at
  • çıkmak to exit
    çıktık
    that went out / that which is exiting

Recognition of the Turkish -dik Participle

The -dik suffix is often difficult to recognize.

It has so many forms:

Vowel Harmony operates in its internal vowel i i u ü

Consonant Change operates on both the initial -d ↔ -t and the terminal -k ↔ -ğ

If a further suffix with a vowel is added the the final -k

  • It is also subject to Consonant Mutation: →
  • ‑diği ‑duğu ‑dığı ‑düğü
  • OR ‑tiği ‑tuğu ‑tığı ‑tüğü

Generally this participle is not used in its pure form.

geldiğim zaman
[gel-diğ-im zaman]
the time that / when I came.

It is always personalized.

This participle just happens to be the same as the 1st Person Plural -dik of the Simple Past Definite Tense.

Being a verbal adjective, it precedes and describes an objective noun.

It cannot stand in the final position in the sentence.

It look like a verb but is an adjective.
[Be careful in translation!]

It is recognized as an adjective by its position sentences.

Turkish Object Participle Personalised

  • The Posssessive Pronouns
    -im -in -i -imiz -iniz -leri
    my your his our their
    are suffixed to the participle.
  • Present Tense
  • Oturduğum ev budur.
    [Otur-duğ-um]
  • This is the house in which I live.
  •  
  • Past Tense
  • Oturduğum ev budu.
  • This is the house in which I lived.
  •  
  • Present Tense
  • En çok sevdiğin yemek nedir?
  • Which is the food that you like best?
  •  
  • Past Tense
  • En çok sevdiğin yemek nedi?
  • Which was the food that you liked best?
  •  
  • Yazdığı mektubu aldım.
  • I have received the letter that he wrote.
  •  
  • Geldiğimiz araba çalınmış.
  • The car in which we came has been stolen, they say.
  •  
  • Beğendiğiniz kumaşı bulamadım.
  • I could not find the material that you liked.
  •  
  • Yaptıkları iyiliği unutamayacağım.
    [Yap-tık-ları]
  • I shall not be able to forget the kindness that they have shown.
  • This participle is used for present as well as past time.
  • It is identical with the first person plural of the past definite tense.
  • The possessive suffix (for person) is vowel harmonised and forms a relative pronoun.
  • The final -k changes to before the possessive suffix, except in the plural.

Turkish Relative Pariciples Examples

VerbRelative Adjective
bulmakto find Bulduğum şapka The hat which I found.
seçmek to choose Seçtiğin kitap The book that you are choosing/chose
görmek to see Gördüğü araba The car that he sees/saw
yazmak to write Yazdığımız mektup The letter that we are writing/that we wrote
demek to say Dediğiniz gibi Like (what) you say/said
sevmek to like Sevdikleri dondurma The ice cream that they liked.
Bulduğum mendil beyazdır The handkerchief that I found is white.
Yazdığımız mektuplar buradadır The letters that we wrote are here.
Çalıştığım büro (ofis) kapalı The office where I work/worked is closed..
Söyledikleri mantıklıdır What they are saying/said is/was sensible.
Doğduğum şehri ziyaret ettimI visited the city where I was born.
Bana verdiğin parayı kaybettimI have lost the money that you gave me.
İlk karşılaştığımız yeri hatırlıyor musun?Do you remember the place where we first met?
Bu masanın üstüne bıraktığım parayı kim çaldı?Who stole the money (which/that) I left on this table?
Kaldığım otel budur. This is the hotel in which I stayed.
Seni gördüğüm zaman konuştuğun kadın kimdi?Who was the woman who you were talking to when I saw you?

Turkish Objective Participle used as a Noun

Adjectives can stand in place of nouns in Turkish:

  • Mehmet, söylediğim cevabı beğenmemiş
    Mehmet seemed not to like the answer that I spoke.
  • söylediğim that which I spoke
    is an adjective to describe cevap answer
  • The relative adjective can be a noun (a relative pronoun) in the objective case: →
  • Mehmet, söylediğimi beğenmemiş
    [söyle-diğ-im-i]
    Mehmet seemed not to like what I said.

These relative pronouns are in the objective case.

They are a direct object of the verb beğenmemiş

  • Mehmet, seçtiğimi beğenmemiş
    Mehmet did not like what I chose.
  • Mehmet, yaptığını beğenmemiş
    Mehmet did not like what you did.
  • Mehmet, söylediğini beğenmemiş
    Mehmet did not like what he said.
  • Mehmet, bulduğumuzu beğenmemiş
    Mehmet did not like what we found.
  • Mehmet, aldığınızı beğenmemiş
    Mehmet did not like what you bought.
  • Mehmet, değiştirdiklerini beğenmemiş
    Mehmet did not like what they changed.

The Difference of Turkish Subject and Object Participles

The Subject Participle is an adjective.

It describes and always precedes the noun / noun phrase.

It signifies the person/thing who is doing something.

It is the subject of the sentence.

  • Çalan zil
    The bell which is ringing.
  • This description itself can be an Object of another verb:
  • Çalan zili duyabiliyorum [zil-i]
    I can hear the bell (obj.) which is ringing.
  • Çalan zili duyabildim
    I could hear the bell which was ringing.

The passive of çalmak is çalınmak

  • Çalınan zili duyabiliyorum
    I can hear the bell that is being rung.
  • Çalınan zili duydum
    I heard the bell that was being rung.

The -an / -en Subject Participle being an adjective does not show the tense.

The tense is taken from the main verb at the end of the sentence.

The object participle signifies the person / thing that is actioned by something as an object.

  • Mehmet'in çaldığı zili duyabiliyorum
    I can hear the bell that Mehmet is / was ringing.
  • Mehmet is actioning the "ringing"

Similarly in the Passive.

  • Mehmet tarafından çalınan zili duyabiliyorum
    I can hear the bell that is / was being rung by Mehmet.

In Turkish if a participle is put between the nouns:
the "possessive construction" at the end of the second noun IS NOT NECESSARY.

  • WRONG: Mehmet'in çaldığı zili(ni)
    This is
    [objective -ni is not used.]
  • CORRECT: Mehmet'in çaldığı zili
    The bell that mehmet pulled.
  • WRONG: Ayşe'nin okuduğu kitabı sen de okumak istiyor musun?
    [objective -ni is not used.]
  • CORRECT: Ayşe'nin okuduğu kitabı sen de okumak istiyor musun?
    Do you also want read the book that Ayshe has read?

HOWEVER:
If a normal adjective is between the nouns:

The "possessive construction" IT IS NECESSARY to use an objective on the possessed noun.

  • Ayşe'nin kalın kitabını [kitabı-nı] bulamıyorum.
    I cannot find Ayshe's thick book.
  • Annesi, evin küçük odasını [odası-nı] ailenin en küçük çocuğuna verdi.
    The mother gave the house's small room to the smallest child.

Lack of Relative Pronouns in Turkish

As there is NO Relative Participle in Turkish that, who, which, when

[No question marks so they are relative pronouns]

  • "Turkishified" English will say for these participles:
  • çalan zil
    the ringing bell
    [the bell which is / was ringing]
  • çaldığı zil
    the bell that he is ringing / that he rung rung
  • [-dik object participle - active verb]
  • çalındığı zil the bell that is / was being rung
  • [-dik object participle - passive verb]
  • The Object Participle:
    geldiğim zaman
    When I came
  • ["time" is the object of my coming]
  • The Subject participle:
    gelen zaman
  • "time" itself is coming
  • [i.e. The future or next time]

Tense taken from main verb.

  • Ali'nin geldiği zaman, çarşıya GİDİYORUZ
    When Ali COMES we ARE GOING to the shops.
  • Ali'nin geldiği zaman, çarşıya GİTTİK
    When Ali CAME we WENT to the shops.

Both ideas "Ali" and his "coming" both become a compound participle (verbal adjective) to describe zaman time

This is more suitable to the Turkish point of view than the relative English constuction "when"

Turkish use of ki that

The Persian ki can be used to produce a relative clause in Turkish

It is alien to the Turkish language.

this method should be avoided or you will be marked as a foreigner.

This method is based on Persian Grammar and is more suitable to European thinking.

  • Biliyorum ki beni seviyorsun.
    I know that you love me.

This Persian method understandable and sometimes used, but is INCORRECT.

The "Object Participle" construction shown below is the CORRECT Turkish method:

  • Beni sevdiğini biliyorum.
    I know that you love me
  • Beni sevdiğ-in-i biliyorum.]
  • [LIT: Me that-love-you know-I.]

This is he CORRECT method according to Turkish Grammar using the object participle:

The correct method uses the -dik Relative Object participle.

Turkish Future Objective Participle

The Future Participle consists of the verb stem with the addition of the Future Tense Sign:

The -mek/-mak is dropped from the infinitive of the Verb and is replaced by the suffix -acak /-ecek

  • gelmek to come
    gelecek which will come
  • gülmek to laugh
    gülecek who will laugh
  • bakmak to look
    bakacak who will look
  • çıkmak to exit
    çıkacak that will go out

The -ecek /-acak future participle can be used in its pure form and also personalized.

This participle just happens to be the same as the 3rd person singular of the Future Tense.

It is not possible to mistake it as a participle.

As an adjective it is never last in the sentence but usually modifies a noun.

  • Yarınki yapacağım iş önemli.
    The work that I will do tomorrow is (will be) important.
  • Yapılabilecek bir sey yok.
    [yap-il-ebil-ecek]
    There is nothing (from a future aspect) that can be done.
  • oturacak değilim.
    I don't intend to sit.
    [LIT: I am not about to sit down]

"Hayır" diyemeyceğiniz tek lezzet.

"Hayır" diyemeyceğiniz tek lezzet.

A famous 'nut spead' slogan seen on supermarket shelves:

"Hayır" diyemeyceğiniz tek lezzet.

diyemeyeceğiniz is a negative peronalized future participle.

It precedes and describes the noun lezzet taste / flavour.

di-y-eme-y-eceğ-iniz
[from "diy-e-me-mek"]
that you will not be able to say

In "Turkish" English:
"No" that-you-will-not-be-able-to-say only taste

In "English" English:
The only taste to which you will not be able to say "No"

Turkish Future Participle "real life" example

The letter writer is asking advice about his employment and its changes.

It shows many instances of various types of participle.

writing letter

Ben 14 seneden beri ayni firmada sistem mühendisi olarak çalışmaktaydım. [I had been working]

Firmam başka bir firma ile birleşince iş hayatıma bu yeni firma altında devam ettim.

Bu geçiş surecinde istersek işten çıkabileceğimiz [that we will be able to quit] ve tazminat [compensation] alabileceğiz [that we will be able to take] söylendi.

Biz istemedik.

Aradan gecen 16 ayda yönetim tarafında bir çok değişiklik oldu ve biz artık oluşan bu yeni yönetim organizasyonunda olmayacağımızı [That we will not be able to] ve çıkmak istediğimizi [that we wanted] söyledik.

Fakat bize dedikleri "Biz sizi bırakmak istemiyoruz, siz bize lâzımsınız. Bizler, sizlerden memnunuz."

Biz, işe böyle bir yönetim altında devam edemeyeceğimizden [that we will not be able to continue] dolayı, ayrılmakta kararlı olduğumuzu [that we will be in acceptance] söyledik.

Onlarda bize bu şartlarda tazminat ve diğer haklarımızın yanacağını [that will put aside] söylediler.

Ne yapmamız lazım lütfen yardim.

Turkish Future Participle - How to say "instead of"

There is a special construction in Turkish when making a choice between future actions.

This consists of the Future Participle + person + motion toward -a/-e

  • oturacağıma
    instead of me sitting
    [oturacağ-ım-a → Future Participle + person + dative particle]
  • Bahçede oturacağımıza salonda oturalım.
    Instead of sitting in the garden let us sit in the salon.

Turkish Future Object Participle Examples

  • Uçağın kalkacağı saati bilmiyorum.
    I don't know what time the plane will take off.
  • Evleneceğim kizı görmek isterim.
    I would like to see the gırl I'm going to marry.
  • Bu hafta sonu sahamızda oynayacağımız maçı kazanmamız gerekiyor.
    This week end we need to win the match that we will play on our pitch.