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Turkish Object Participles

This participle is used for both present and past Tenses. A participle is an adjective which is formed from a verb and as such it precedes the noun which it describes.

Being a relative participle then it can also serve as a noun and therefore have the personal suffixes and the suffixes of declension added thus forming a relative clause.

It is used for both the present and past tenses, only the context of the situation pertaining will tell which tense to use in English.

Turkish Object Participle Formation

  • Verbs drop the infinitive sign -mek/-mak whıch is repaced with -dik/-tik -dık/-tık -dük/-dük -duk/-duk
  • gelmek to come becomes geldik that came/that which is coming
  • gülmek to laugh becomes güldük that laughed/that which laughs
  • bakmak to look becomes baktık that looked at/that which looks at
  • çıkmak to exit becomes çıktık that went out/that which is exiting

Generally this participle is not used in its pure form as above but is always personalized. This participle just happens to be the same as the 1st Person Plural [-dik] of the Simple Past Definite Tense. Being a verbal adjective, it precedes and describes an objective noun. It cannot stand in the final position in the sentence. It look like a verb but is an adjective. It is recognized as an adjective by its position sentences.

The -dik suffix is often difficult to recognize as it has so many forms due to vowel harmony operating in its internal vowel and consonant mutation operating on both the initial -d and the terminal -k
The -dik, -duk, -dık, -dük Participle is subject to both Vowel Harmony and Consonant Mutation Rules.
So you can find -tik, -tuk, -tık, -tük. If a further suffix with a vowel is added the the final -k is also subject to Consonant Mutation: -diği, -duğu, -dığı, -düğü or -tiği, -tuğu, -tığı, -tüğü

Turkish Object Participle Personalised

  • The posssessive pronouns -im -in -i -imiz -iniz -leri my your his our their are suffixed to the participle.
  • Oturduğum [Otur-duğ-um] ev budur. This is the house in which I live. [present tense]
  • Oturduğum [Otur-duğ-um] ev budu. This is the house in which I lived. [past tense]
  • En çok sevdiğin [sev-diğ-in ] yemek nedir? Which is the food that you like best? [present tense]
  • En çok sevdiğin [sev-diğ-in ] yemek nedi? Which was the food that you liked best? [past tense]
  • Yazdığı [Yaz-dığ-ı] mektubu aldım. I have received the letter that he wrote.
  • Geldiğimiz [Gel-diğ-imiz] araba çalınmış. The car in which we came has been stolen, they say.
  • Beğendiğiniz [Beğen-diğ-iniz] kumaşı bulamadım. I could not find the material that you liked.
  • Yaptıkları [Yap-tık-ları] iyiliği unutamayacağım. I shall not be able to forget the kindness that they have shown.
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  • This participle is used for present as well as past time.
  • It is identical with the first person plural of the past definite tense.
  • The possessive suffix (for person) is vowel harmonised and forms a relative pronoun.
  • The final -k changes to before the possessive suffix, except in the plural.
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  • Singular Relative Participle
  • 1st person: Oturduğum ev budur.
  • This is the house in which I live.
  • 2nd person: Oturduğun ev budur.
  • This is the house in which you live.
  • 3rd Person: Oturduğu ev budur.
  • This is the house in which he lives.
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  • Plural Relative Participle
  • 1st person: Oturduğumuz ev budur.
  • This is the house in which we live.
  • 2nd person: Oturduğunuz ev budur.
  • This is the house in which you live.
  • 3rd Person: Oturdukları ev budur.
  • This is the house in which they live.
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Turkish Relative Pariciples
VerbRelative Adjective
bulmakto find Bulduğum şapka The hat which I found.
seçmek to choose Seçtiğin kitap The book that you are choosing/chose
görmek to see Gördüğü araba The car that he sees/saw
yazmak to write Yazdığımız mektup The letter that we are writing/that we wrote
demek to say Dediğiniz gibi Like (what) you say/said
sevmek to like Sevdikleri dondurma The ice cream that they liked.
Bulduğum mendil beyazdır The handkerchief that I found is white.
Yazdığımız mektuplar buradadır The letters that we wrote are here.
Çalıştığım büro (ofis) kapalı The office where I work/worked is closed..
Söyledikleri mantıklıdır What they are saying/said is/was sensible.
Doğduğum şehri ziyaret ettimI visited the city where I was born.
Bana verdiğin parayı kaybettimI have lost the money that you gave me.
İlk karşılaştığımız yeri hatırlıyor musun?Do you remember the place where we first met?
Bu masanın üstüne bıraktığım parayı kim çaldı?Who stole the money (which/that) I left on this table?
Kaldığım otel budur. This is the hotel in which I stayed.
Seni gördüğüm zaman konuştuğun kadın kimdi?Who was the woman who you were talking to when I saw you?

Turkish Objective Participle used as a Noun

  • Adjectives can stand in place of nouns in Turkish:
  • Mehmet, söylediğim cevabı beğenmemiş Mehmet seemed not to like the answer that I spoke.
  • söylediğim that which I spoke is an adjective to describe cevap answer
  • However we can make the relative adjective into a noun (a relative pronoun) in the objective case:
  • Mehmet, söylediğimi [söyle-diğ-im-i] beğenmemiş Mehmet seemed not to like what I said.
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  • These relative pronouns are in the objective case as a direct object of the verb beğenmemiş
  • Mehmet, seçtiğimi beğenmemiş
  • Mehmet did not like what I chose.
  • Mehmet, yaptığını beğenmemiş
  • Mehmet did not like what you did.
  • Mehmet, söylediğini beğenmemiş
  • Mehmet did not like what he said.
  • Mehmet, bulduğumuzu beğenmemiş
  • Mehmet did not like what we found.
  • Mehmet, aldığınızı beğenmemiş
  • Mehmet did not like what you bought.
  • Mehmet, değiştirdiklerini beğenmemiş
  • Mehmet did not like what they changed.
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The Difference of Turkish Subject and Object Participles

The subject participle is an adjective. It describes and always precedes the noun/noun phrase.
It signifies the person/thing who is doing something. It is the subject of the sentence.
Çalan zil The bell which is ringing..
This description itself can be an Object of another verb:
Çalan zili duyabiliyorum [zil-i]
I can hear the bell (obj.) which is ringing.
Çalan zili duyabildim
I could hear the bell which was ringing.

The passive of çalmak is çalınmak so the above sentence in the Passive is:
Çalınan zili duyabiliyorum
I can hear the bell that is being rung.
Çalınan zili duydum
I heard the bell that was being rung.
The -an/-en Subject Participle being an adjective does not show the tense. The tense is taken from the main verb at the end of the sentence.

The object participle signifies the person/thing that is actioned by something as an object.
Mehmet'in çaldığı zili duyabiliyorum
I can hear the bell that Mehmet is/was ringing.
Mehmet is actioning the "ringing".

Similarly in the Passive
Mehmet tarafından çalınan zili duyabiliyorum
I can hear the bell that is/was being rung by Mehmet.
The bell's ringing is being actioned by Mehmet.

In Turkish if a participle is put between the nouns composing "possessive construction" an objective at the end of the second noun IS NOT NECESSARY.
Mehmet'in çaldığı zilini : This is WRONG [objective -ni is not used.]
Mehmet'in çaldığı zili : This is CORRECT.
Ayşe'nin okuduğu kitabı sen de okumak istiyor musun? : WRONG [objective -ni is not used.]
Ayşe'nin okuduğu kitabı sen de okumak istiyor musun? : CORRECT
HOWEVER:
If a normal adjective is put between the nouns composing "possessive construction" IT IS NECESSARY to use an objective at the end of the second noun.
Ayşe'nin kalın kitabını [kitabı-nı] bulamıyorum.
I cannot find Ayshe's thick book.
Annesi, evin küçük odasını [odası-nı] ailenin en küçük çocuğuna verdi..\
The mother gave the house's small room to the smallest child.

Lack of Relative Pronouns in Turkish

As there is NO Relative Participle in Turkish that, who, which, when [No question marks so they are relative pronouns] then "Turkishified" English will say for these participles:
çalan zil the ringing bell/the bell which is/was ringing [-en/-an subject participle the bell is the subject].
çaldığı zil the bell that he is ringing/that he rung rung [-dik object participle - active verb]
çalındığı zil the bell that is/was being rung [-dik object participle - passive verb]
A Further Explanation
So using the object participle geldiğim zaman When I came [time is the object of my coming]
But using the subject participle gelen zaman this means the time itself is coming [i.e. The future or next time]

Tense taken from main verb:
Ali'nin geldiği zaman, çarşıya GİDİYORUZ When Ali COMES we ARE GOING to the shops.
Ali'nin geldiği zaman, çarşıya GİTTİK When Ali CAME we WENT to the shops.
Both ideas "Ali" and his "coming" both become a compound participle (verbal adjective) to describe zaman time. This is more suitable to the Turkish point of view than the relative English constuction when.

Turkish use of ki that

The Persian ki can be used to produce a relative clause in Turkish but it is alien to the language and this method should be avoided or you will be marked as a foreigner. This method is based on Persian Grammar and is more suitable to European thinking.
Biliyorum ki beni seviyorsun. I know that you love me.
This Persian method understandable and sometimes used, but is INCORRECT.

The "Object Participle" construction shown below id the CORRECT Turkish method:.
Beni sevdiğini biliyorum. This is he CORRECT method according to Turkish Grammar using the object participle:
Beni sevdiğ-in-i biliyorum. Lit: Me that-love-you know I
Beni me sevdiğini that you love [sevdik that loves + in you/your + i object marker for the verb] biliyorum I know..
The correct method uses the -dik Relative Object participle.

Turkish Future Objective Participle

The Future Participle in its simple consists of the verb stem with the addition of the Future Tense Sign -ecek or -acak. The -mek/-mak is dropped from the infinitive of the Verb and is replaced by the suffix -acak/-ecek which is subject to vowel harmony.
gelmek to come gelecek that will come
gülmek to laugh gülecek that will laugh
bakmak to look bakacak that will look
çıkmak to exit - çıkacak that will go out
This -ecek/-acak future participle can be used in its pure form and also personalized. This participle just happens to be the same as the 3rd person singular of the Future Tense but it is not possible to mistake it. As an adjective it is never last in the sentence but usually modifies a noun.
Yarınki yapacağım iş önemli. The work that I will do tomorrow is (will be) important.
Yapılabilecek bir sey yok. [yap-il-ebil-ecek] There is nothing (from a future aspect) that can be done.
oturacak değilim. I don't intend to sit. [LIT: to sit (as a future aspect) I am not]

"Hayır" diyemeyceğiniz tek lezzet.

Turkish Future Paticiple -  No, that-you-will-not-be-able-to-say only taste.

A famous 'nut spead' slogan seen on supermarket shelves: "Hayır" diyemeyceğiniz tek lezzet.

di-ye-me-yeceğ-iniz is a future participle which precedes and describes the noun lezzet - taste/flavour.
di-ye-me [from "diyememek"] becomes not to be able to say
di-ye-me-yeceğ becomes will not be able to say
di-ye-me-yeceğ-iniz becomes that you will not be able to say
Thus the whole meaning becomes in "Turkish" English: "No" that-you-will-not-be-able-to-say only taste
In "English" English: The only taste to which you will not be able to say "No"

Turkish Future Participle "real life" example

The letter writer is asking advice about his employment and its changes.
It shows many instances of various types of participle.

Ben 14 seneden beri ayni firmada sistem mühendisi olarak çalışmaktaydım.
Firmam başka bir firma ile birleşince iş hayatıma bu yeni firma altında devam ettim.
Bu geçiş surecinde istersek işten çıkabileceğimiz ve tazminat [compensation] alabileceğiz söylendi.
Biz istemedik.
Aradan gecen 16 ayda yönetim tarafında bir çok değişiklik oldu ve biz artık oluşan bu yeni yönetim organizasyonunda olmayacağımızı ve çıkmak istediğimizi söyledik.
Fakat bize dedikleri "Biz sizi bırakmak istemiyoruz, siz bize lâzımsınız. Bizler, sizlerden memnunuz."
Biz, işe böyle bir yönetim altında devam edemeyeceğimizden dolayı, ayrılmakta kararlı olduğumuzu söyledik.
Onlarda bize bu şartlarda tazminat ve diğer haklarımızın yanacağını söylediler.
Ne yapmamız lazım lütfen yardim.

Turkish Future Participle - How to say "instead of"

There is a special construction in Turkish when making a choice between future actions. This consists of The future participle + person + motion toward [dative] -a/-e
oturacağıma [oturacağ-ım-a] instead of me sitting [future participle + person + dative particle]
Bahçede oturacağımıza salonda oturalım. Instead of sitting in the garden let us sit in the salon.

Turkish Future Object Participle Examples

  • Uçağın kalkacağı saati bilmiyorum.
  • I don't know what time the plane will take off.
  • Evleneceğim kizı görmek isterim.
  • I would like to see the gırl I'm going to marry.
  • Bu hafta sonu sahamızda oynayacağımız maçı kazanmamız gerekiyor.
  • This week end we need to win the match that we will play on our pitch.
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