spatials > lost in space

Turkish Spatial Relationships "Lost in Space"

Formation of Turkish Spatials

As in English spatials may either be adjectives or nouns.

The exterior door. The outside wall here we are using the word exterior and outside as adjectives describing the nouns they possess, in this case door and wall. As in English these spatials can also be nouns.

At the back of the house. From the top of the table. In these cases both back and top are nouns; it is even pointed out to us by the use of the Definite Article the back and the top. However when we say At the back/rear of the house. In English we can also say At the house's back/rear.

This construction is exactly the same as the Possessive Relationship in Turkish:
Evin arkası. The back of the house. [LIT: the house-of the back-its.]
Masanın üstü. The top of the table. [LIT: the table-of the top-its.]

We can see that Spatial Relationships are just another form of the Possessive Relationship in Turkish where one noun owns the second ev-in arka-sı the back of the house. As we have already learned that is a new extended noun then we can apply further small suffixes to, from, at etc. to complete the meaning as required.
Masanın üstünden From the top of the table. (uses -den suffix.)
Masanın üstünde. On the top of the table. (uses -de suffix.)
Masanın üstüne. To the top of the table. (uses -e suffix.)
This then is the way that Turkish treats spatial relationships. They are constantly used in daily conversation and reading.

Turkish Spatial Expressions

dış/dışı Exterior, outside

Used as an Adjective (dış)
dış kapı the outside gate
dış avlu the outside yard

Used as a Noun (dışı)
kapının dışı the outside of the gate
bankanın dışına to the outside of the bank
evin dışında at the outside of the house
bahçenin dışından from the outside the garden

A cafe sign in a Kuşadası Park - dışarı-dan

Please do not bring anything to eat and drink from outside.
"Please do not bring anything to eat and drink from outside."

kapının dışından from (the) outside (of the) gate
bankanın dışından from (the) outside (of the) bank
peronun dışına to (the) outside (of the) railway platform
English sometimes drops the little word of. The noun dışı the exterior takes a buffer letter -n- when adding the -de and -dan suffixes. A little warning: Try not mix this word with diş tooth which of course is spelt with a Dotted -i-

Another sign in a park cafe in Kuşadası - dışar-dan

In here which are sold products from outside to bring is prohibited. We thank you.
"In here which are sold products from outside to bring is prohibited. We thank you."

dışarı (dışarıya) gidiyorum. I'm going out.
dışarıdan geliyorum. I'm coming from outside.
dışarıdayım ["dışardayım" - as spoken] I am outside.

Evin dışına çıktı. He went out of the house. (to the outside of the house)
Kapının dışında bir adam bekliyordu. A man was waiting outside the door. (at the outside of..)
Evin dışından arabalar geçiyor. Cars are passing outside the house. (by way of the outside of the house)

interior, internal

-(n)in içine to the inside of
-(n)in içinde at the inside of
-(n)in içinden from the inside of

Used as an Adjective
iç hastalıkları internal diseases
iç savaş civil war

Used as a Noun
odanın içi the inside of the room
ormanın içinde in the depths the forest
garın içinden from the inside of the railway station

Trenin içinde yer buldu, oturdu. He found a place in the train and sat down.
Bu kutuda ne var? Bilmem, içine bakmadım. What is in this box? I don't know, I haven't looked inside.
Odanın içinden bir gürültü geliyordu. A noise was coming from inside the room
Bu odanın içindekilerin hepsi kiralıktır. [iç-i-nde-ki-ler-in hep-si] The contents of this room are all on hire.
Eşyalarımı kutu içine koydum. I put my things into a box/boxes.
Eşyalarımı kutunun içine koydum. I put my things into the box.
Bir hafta içinde kitabini bitirecek. He will finish his book within a week.
Bu şehrin içinde çok insan va.r There are many people in this town.

As an Adverb of Place içeri inside

içeri inside is used without a preceding noun, because it is a adverb of place.
içeri gidiyorum. I'm going in(side). (içeriye also could be used)
içerden geliyorum. I'm coming from inside.

içeri and dışarı can be used with nouns.
Lütfen kapıdan içeri giriniz. Please go (pass) inside through (or from) the door.
Evimden dışarı çık! Get out of my house!

yan side, next to

-(n)in yanına to the side of
-(n)in yanında at/by the side of
-(n)in yanından from the side of

Used as an Adjective
yan kapı side gate
yan sokak side road

Used as a Noun
kapının yanında (right/just = -inda) next to the gate
bankanın yanından from next to the bank
sol duvarın yanına next to the left wall
duvarın sol yanına next to the left side of the wall

Mehmet, Ali'nin yanına oturdu. Mehmet sat down next to Ali.
Mehmet, Ali'nin yanında oturdu. Mehmet sat next to Ali.
Kitabi, yatağın yanındaki masanın üstüne attı. He threw the book on top of the table beside the bed.

taraf side, side part

taraf is not an adjective it is only used as a noun.

-(n)in tarafına to the side part of
-(n)in tarafında at/by the side part of
-(n)in tarafından from the side part of

kapının tarafında at the side of the gate
bankanın tarafından from the side (of) the bank
peronun tarafına to the side of the railway Platform

Arabanın alt tarafından bir seyler damlıyor. Something(s) is dripping from the underside of the car.
Sen kimin tarafındasın? Benim(ki) mi onun(ku) mu? Whose side are you on? Mine or his?
Dolabın üst tarafına baktın mı? Have you looked at (to) the topside of the cupboard?

üst top, topmost

-(n)in üstüne to the top of
-(n)in üstünde at/by the top of
-(n)in üstünden from the top of

Used as an Adjective
üst tepe the top hill
en üst pencere the uppermost window (superlative)

Used as a Noun
bardağın üstünde on top of the glass
ağaçların üstüne towards the top of the trees
arabamın üstünden from the top of the my car

Kitabi, masanın üstüne koydu. He put the book on top of the table.
Kapının üzerinde büyük bir pencere vardı. There was a big window over (on top of) the door.

üzeri over

üzeri over, on top of, in addition to, besides
-(n)in üzerine over
-(n)in üstünde at/by the top of, over the top of..
-(n)in üstünden from the top of, from over the top of..

elma üzerine portakal getir in addition to apples get (some) oranges
binanın üzerinden from over the building
masanın üzerindeki fincan the cup which is on top of the table

Bu sözün üzerine çok kızdım. Upon these words I became very angry.
Bunun üzerine çok kızdım. Upon this I became very angry.

alt under

alt bottom, under, below, underneath
-(n)in altına under, to the under of
-(n)in altında under, at/by the under of
-(n)in altından from underneath

Used as an Adjective
alt kapı the bottom gate
alt dolap the lower cupboard

Used as a Noun
Alt dolabın altına fincanları koyunuz dışarıda. Put the cups (to the) underneath the bottom cupboard.
Masanın altından topu cekin. Get the ball from under the table.
Sağ ayağımın altı kaşınıyor. The underneath of my right foot is itching.

Köpek dolabın altına girdi, orada yatıyor. The dog went under the cupboard [LIT: entered to the underneath the cupboard] and is lying there.
Köpek dolabın altında yatıyor. The dog is lying under the cupboard.
Köpeğimiz hep ayak altında. Our dog is always underfoot.

orta middle, center

-(n)in ortasına to the middle of
-(n)in ortasında at the middle of
-(n)in ortasından from the middle of

Used as an Adjective
orta kapı the middle gate
orta oda the centre room

Used as a Noun
parkın ortasına to the middle of the park
bahçenin ortasında in the middle of the garden
orta odanın ortasından from the centre of the middle room

Yemeğin ortasında geldi. He arrived in the middle of the meal.
Her zaman yemek ortasında gelir. He always comes in the middle of dinner.
Sokağın ortasında yürüyor. He is walking in the middle of the street.
Tam sokağın ortasında yürüyor. He is walking right in the middle of the street.
Tam sokağın ortasından yürüyor. He is walking exactly down the middle of the street.
Ahmed'in kitabinin ortasına kadar okudum. I read as far as the middle of Ahmet's book
Buraya hafta ortasında vardı. He arrived here in midweek.
Buraya haftanın ortasında vardı. He arrived here in the middle of the week.

art behind

art behind, rear side, backside
-(n)in ardına to the behind of
-(n)in ardında at the rear of
-(n)in ardından from behind of

Used as a Noun [art is not an adjective it is only used as a noun.]
kapının ardında at the rear the door, behind the door
bankanın ardından from behind the bank
mutfağın ardına to the rear of the kitchen

arka back, rear

-(n)in arkasına to the back of
-(n)in arkasında at/by back of
-(n)in arkasından from the back of

Used as an Adjective
arka kapı the back gate
arka bahçe the back garden

Used as a Noun
kapının arkası the back of the door
garajın arkasından from back of the garage
kuyruğun arkasına to the back of the queue

Evimin arkasında büyük bir bahçe var. There is a big garden behind my house.
Masanın arkasına baktınız ml? Did you look behind the table?

ön front

-(n)in önüne to the front of
-(n)in önünde at/by front of
-(n)in önünden from the front of

Used as an Adjective
ön kapı the front door
ön pencereler the front windows

Used as a Noun
kapının önünde in front of the door
manavın önüne to the front of the greengrocer's
rafların önünden from the front of the shelves

Otobüs, tam evimizin önünde durur. The bus stops just in front of our house.
Bahçemizin önündeki duvarda oturduk. We sat on the wall in front of our garden.

yakın near

yakın near, nearby, close to, in the vicinity of
-(n)in yakınına to the nearby of
-(n)in yakınında nearby
-(n)in yakınından from near the

Used as an Adjective
yakın kapı the nearby gate
yakın bir ofis an office nearby

Used as a Noun
kapının yakınında near the gate
kapının yakınlarında near by the gate [plural is more vague.]
bankanın yakınından from close to the bank [LIT: from the near of the bank]
otogarın yakınına in the vicinity of bus station

Used as an Adverb of Place yakın near
bankaya yakın near to the bank

ara space between

-(n)in arasına in between
-(n)in arasında between
-(n)in arasından from between

Used as an Adjective
ara kapı the door between [a connecting door between rooms]

Used as a Noun
hafta arası mid-week
kapıların arasında in between (of) the doors
Masaların arasına iskemleyi koyun. Put the chair (to the) between (of the) tables.
Bunların arasından bir tane alın. Take one from between these.

This word refers to the space between, meaning between or among.
It preceded either by a plural noun or several nouns connected by ile also, and.

Evlerimizin arasında büyük bir bina var. There is a big building between our houses.
O evlerin arasında bir park var. There is a park amongst those houses.
Amerika ile Avrupa arasında Atlas Okyanusu var. The Atlantic Ocean is between America and Europe.

karşı opposite, against

-(n)in karşısına to the opposite side of, against
-(n)in karşısında at the opposite side of, against
-(n)in karşısından from the opposite side of, against

Used as an Adjective
karşı kapı the opposite gate
karşı kaldırım the opposite pavement (USA: opposite sidewalk)

Used as a Noun
kapının karşısında opposite the gate
bankanın karşısındaki sokak the street which is opposite the bank
Mehmet, kahvenin karşısından çıktı. Mehmet came out from opposite the cafe.

Fabrika, evimizin karşısında. The factory is opposite our house (across from our house.)
Mehmed'in karşısına oturdu. He sat down facing (opposite, across from) Mehmet.
Bir kedi karşıma çıktı. A cat appeared in front of me.

etraf around

Etraf was originally an Arabic Plural of taraf side
etraf around, environment, surroundings
-(n)in etrafına to the surrounds of
-(n)in etrafında around the
-(n)in etrafından from around the

Used as a Noun etraf- is not an adjective it is only used as a noun
Masamızın etrafına bolca çiçek koyuldu. Flowers galore were put around our table
Etrafımda çocuklar oynuyordu. the children were playing (all) around me
Bostanın etrafından from around the vegetable garden

çevre around, surrounding

çevre is synonymous with etraf shown above, and is gradually replacing the Arabic word.

A Public Sign in a Park - çevre-miz-i

Let us keep our surroundings clean.
"Let us keep our surroundings clean."

-(n)in çevresine to the surrounds of
-(n)in çevresinde around the
-(n)in çevresinden from around the

Used as an Adjective
çevre yolu circular road (bypass road)

Used as a Noun
kentin çevreleri the surroundings of the town
Bankanın çevresinde bir park bulunur. There is a park surrounding the bank.
Fabrikanın çevresine bir engel koydular. They have put a barrier around the factory.

In Geometry Çevre also means perimeter
Karenin çevresi 24 cm(dir). The perimeter of the square is 24 cm.
The other words are alan area and hacim volume.

A Kuşadası building site çevre-miz-e

We apologize on account of the dangers and discomforts that we will  give to our surroundings during building works.
"We apologize on account of the dangers and discomforts that we will give to our surroundings during building works."

çevre-miz-e surroundings-of-us-to
inşaat sırasında during the building (works)
vereceğimiz zaralardan from the damages that we wil give
rahat-sız-lık-lar-dan dolayı [LIT: discomfortnesses-from because of]

aşağı down, downstairs

-(n)in aşağısı downwards
-(n)in aşağısında - below, downstairs
-(n)in -aşağısından from below, less than

Used as an Adjective
aşağı mahalle a low town district (Figuratively: slum)
aşağı kat the floor below

Used as a Noun
inişin aşağısı downhill [LIT: The down of the hill]
merdivenin aşağısına to downstairs
Yolun aşağısından yürüyün. Walk from the bottom of the road.
Dağın aşağısı serin. It is chilly down the mountain. [LIT: The down of the mountain is chilly.]
Dağın aşağısındaki ağaçlar çok güzel. The trees which are at the lower side of the mountain are very beautiful.
Dağın aşağısından gelen rüzgar çok soğuk. The wind which comes from the lower side of the mountain is so cold.

Used as an Adverb of Place aşağı downstairs
aşağı gidiyorum. I going downstairs or aşağıya gidiyorum. I going (to) downstairs

In Turkish Aşağı/yukarı are also used for the geographical terms upper/lower
Yukarı Bavyera Upper Bavaria, Aşağı Bavyera Lower Bavaria.

Some places in Turkey called Lower.
Aşağıazaplı, village in Adıyaman Province.
Aşağınasırlı, a village in the District of Gölbaşı.
Aşağı Gökdere, Eğridir, Isparta.
Aşağı Pınar, Neolithic excavation in the outskirts of the town of Kırklareli.
Akbank Aşağıayrancı Şubesi, a local bank in Ankara Çankaya.
Aşağı Dudullu İlköğretim Okulu, Ümraniye, İstanbul.
Aşağı Yuvalı Köyü, a village in Gümüşhane.
Aşağı Hadim Cami, a mosque in Konya.

yukarı above, up upstairs

-(n)in yukarısına upwards
-(n)in yukarısında up, upstairs
-(n)in yukarısından from above/more than

Used as an Adjective
yukarı ev the house above
yukarı dal the branch (of a tree) above

Used as a Noun
yokuş yukarı uphill
merdivenin yukarısı upstairs
Tepenin yukarısından indik. We came down from the top of the hill.

Some places in Turkey called Upper.
Yukarı Borandere, Kayseri
Yukarı Düden Şelalesi Antalya
Yukarı Ağadeve, Hamur, Ağrı Province
Yukarı Karahayıt Hotels
Yukarı Norgâh in Erzurum
Yukarı Pınarca Köyü Trabzon
Yukarı Nasırlı Turkey
Yukarı Gökdere, Eğridir, Isparta

peş back, the space behind

Peş means "the back of a moving object" usually in the form peşinden after.
Only used for moving objects which are following something in motion.

Otobüsün peşinden gittik We went after the bus {LIT: "we followed the "moving rear of the bus"]
Benim peşime düşün! Follow me! [LIT: "Fall in behind me."]

Note: peşin, peşinat pre-payment, paid in advance
peşin para cash, ready money, spot cash

  • Examples of Turkish Spatials
  • Bir adam, vapurun arkasından suyun içine duştu.
  • A man fell from the back of the ship into the water.
  • Onlarla bizim aramızda, bahçe üzerine kavga çıktı.
  • A fight arose between them and us over the garden.
  • Büyük bir ağacın altında yere yattı.
  • He lay on the ground under a big tree.
  • Her şeyim el altında.
  • Everything of mine is at hand.
  • Dükkanın arkasında büyük elma ağaçları var.
  • There are big apple trees behind the store.
  • Halil her aksam içki içer, gece ortasında eve gelir.
  • Halil drinks every evening and comes home in the middle of the night.
  • Size bir paket getirdim, eşyalarınızın arasına attım.
  • I brought you a package and threw it among your things.
  • Bu kıs, sizinkinin karşısındaki evde oturacağız.
  • This winter we will live in the house opposite yours.
  • Paketin içindekilerini bize gösterir misiniz?
  • Will you show us the contents of the package?
  • Evin dış kısmına baktık, içine ama girmedik.
  • We looked at the outside part of the house, but we didn't go inside.
  • Yunus Emre'nin Ahmedin üstündeki tesiri çok büyüktür.
  • Yunus Emre's influence on Ahmet is very great.
  • Askerler, şehrin önüne duvar yaptılar.
  • The soldiers made a wall in front of the city.
  • Ahmet daima o kızın peşinden gider.
  • Ahmet always follows that girl.
  • Senin koca ayaklarının yanında yer kalmadı.
  • There is no room left beside your enormous feet.


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