participles > Turkish "ki" (that, which)

Turkish Relative Ki that, which

There are 3 types of Turkish ki and its plural -kiler

Conjunction: that, so that, as, but what, but.
Pronoun: that/those which, which, who.
Idiom: thus, like that, so it is.

Vowel Harmony - ki only changes to

-ki is not subject to the vowel harmony other than -kü.
It becomes kü. when added to words whose final vowel is ö or ü

  1. Bugünkü planımız, sinemaya gitmek.
    Our plan for today is to got to the cinema.
    [LIT: Today's plan-our]
  2. Dünkü hava çok güzeldi.
    Yesterday's weather was nice.

Turkish kiler in the plural

  1. Odanın içindekileri hepsi kiralamış.
    Apparently all the room's contents are on hire.
    içindekiler contents
    [Lit: those which are inside]
  2. Odadakiler şaşkınlıkla ona baktı.
    Those in the room looked at him in astonishment.
  3. Bankadakiler saat 18:00 'de paydos ediyorlardı.
    Those in the bank finished work at 18:00 hours.
  4. Sonra ailemdekiler kendilerini suçlu hissetmeye başladı.
    Later on, those in my family began to feel (themselves) guilty.
  5. Bu corbayı tavsiye ederim. Evdekiler çok seviyorlar.
    I recommend this soup. Those at home like (it) a lot.
  6. İş yerimde çok zor zamanlar geçiyorum. İş yerimdekiler iyi insan değılmişler.
    I am having hard time at my work place. Those at my work place do not seem (to be)good people.

Ki as a Conjunction

This word ki replaces the English words who, that, which when joining two ideas in relation to each other.

  1. Oran, ki sen bugün gördün, benim en iyi arkadaşım.
    Oran, who you saw today, is my best friend
  2. Matematik, ki bir çok insan nefret eder, benim en sevdiğim derstir.
    Maths, which many people hate, is my favorite class.

Ki is used for joining two sentences together.
This method, borrowed from Persian grammar is not natural Turkish:
Biliyorum ki beni seviyorsun. I know that you love me.

The correct method in Turkish grammar is:
Beni sevdiğini biliyorum. I know that you love me.
Whereas Biliyorum ki beni seviyorsun. although understandable is NOT the natural Turkish method.

Correct Turkish uses the -dik Relative Object participle:
Beni sevdiğini biliyorum. I know that you love me
[LIT: Me that-love-you knowing-am-I]

sev-diğ- that loves + -in you/your + -i [object marker for the verb: biliyorum I know]

Both ideas "the person" and "their loving" become objects of the verb I know. This is more suitable to the Turkish point of view.

Turkish ki as a Suffix of Location

Ki is affixed to the static location condition -de/-da to produce the suffix -deki/-daki.
This forms an adjective of location who/which is in..

This constuction replaces the English the relative pronoun who/which/that/what.

In English the reltive pronoun is often is glossed over or not included at all and can be omitted.

Bahçedeki çocuk. The child (who is) in the garden.
Masadaki kitap. The book (which is) on the table.

The relative ki who, which, that is necessary in Turkish.

If ki is omitted Bahçede çocuk is meaningless, whereas bahçedeki çocuk means The child WHO-is-in-the-garden. showing that "the child" is specifically "in the garden".

  1. Elimdeki para.
    The money (that is) in my hand, The money (that) I've got.
  2. Yanımdaki para yok.
    I don't have money with me.
    [LIT: the that is by my side money does not exist.]

Turkish Ki as an Idiom

Ki is often used for completion purposes meaning which is…/that is../what is…

  1. oysa ki if it is thus, if that's the way it is, thus, so then
  2. hal bu ki the condition is this, that is the way it is, so then

These utterances are regularly found written as a single word (although they are not), and have found a way into the language as oysaki so, then, halbuki It's this way, like this

  1. öyle ki
    such that, in fact
    [LIT: it is thus]
  2. yeter ki no longer
    [LIT: its enough that]
  3. kaldı ki moreover, besides
    [LIT: it remained that]
  4. oysaki
    however, yet, though
    [LIT: if it is that way]
  5. mademki
    seeing that, since, as long as
    [LIT: in that]
  6. halbuki so, then
    [LIT: the condition is this]
  7. sanki
    as if, it seems, although
    [LIT: if it is that]
  8. dünkü
    [LIT: that of yesterday]
    ki is vowel harmonised after letter
  9. akşamki
    the evening's
    [LIT: that of the evening]
  10. az önceki a little earlier on
    [LIT: less (time) before]

Ki as a Relative Pronoun

In the completion of descriptive nouns, the suffix -ki can be added to the completed noun and then used in place of the noun + noun completion.

  • Ali'nin arabası, Ayşe'nin arabasından daha güzeldir.
    Ali's car is better than Ayşe's car.
  • Ali'nin arabası, Ayşe'ninkinden daha güzeldir.
    Ali's car is better than Ayşe's (one).
  • Koltuklarımız, babamın koltuklarından daha yenidir.
    Our chairs are newer than my father's chairs.
  • Bizimkiler, babamın koltuklarından daha yenidir.
    Our ones are newer than my father's chairs.
  • Bahçenin domatesi, seranın domatesinden daha lezzetlidir.
    Garden tomatoes are tastier than the greenhouse tomatoes.
  • Bahçeninkiler, seraninkinden daha lezzetlidir.
    The garden ones are tastier than the greenhouse ones.
  • Mehmet'in kitabi yerine Ahmet'inki.
    Mehmet's book is in place of Ahmet's.

Turkish ki as a separate word

The various meanings of Turkish ki. It completes the final verb action within the sentences.

  • who, which, that, when
  • so, that, such, that
  • seeing, considering that
  • as, though, "I wonder"
  1. Film o kadar üzücüydü ki, ağladım.
    The film was so sad, that I had to cry.
  2. Hava o kadar sisliydi ki, hiç bir şey göremiyordum.
    The weather was so foggy, that I hardly saw anything.
  3. Herkes bilir ki, dünya yuvarlaktır.
    Everybody knows that the world is round.
  4. Oturdum ki, biraz dinleneyim
    I sat down (in order) to have a rest.
  5. Neden bu kadar sinirleniyorsun ki?
    What are you getting upset for/about?

A converstaion using ki:

İçerdeki masanın üzerinde duran gömlekler yeni mi?
Are the shirts on the table inside new ones?
Evet bugün aldım. Seninkileri de gördün mü?
Yes I bought Then today. Did you see yours?
Yok, nerede ki?
No, where are they then?
Yatak odasındalar.
They are in the bed-room.


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