Turkish Relative Ki that, which
There are 3 types of Turkish ki and its plural -kiler
Conjunction: that, so that, as, but what, but.
Pronoun: that/those which, which, who.
Idiom: thus, like that, so it is.
Vowel Harmony - ki only changes to kü
-ki is not subject to the vowel harmony other than -kü.
It becomes kü. when added to words whose final vowel is ö or ü
- Bugünkü planımız, sinemaya gitmek.
Our plan for today is to got to the cinema.
[LIT: Today's plan-our]
- Dünkü hava çok güzeldi.
Yesterday's weather was nice.
Turkish kiler in the plural
- Odanın içindekileri hepsi kiralamış.
Apparently all the room's contents are on hire.
[Lit: those which are inside]
- Odadakiler şaşkınlıkla ona baktı.
Those in the room looked at him in astonishment.
- Bankadakiler saat 18:00 'de paydos ediyorlardı.
Those in the bank finished work at 18:00 hours.
- Sonra ailemdekiler kendilerini suçlu hissetmeye başladı.
Later on, those in my family began to feel
- Bu corbayı tavsiye ederim. Evdekiler çok seviyorlar.
I recommend this soup. Those at home like
- İş yerimde çok zor zamanlar geçiyorum.
I am having hard time at my work place.
- İş yerimdekiler iyi insan değılmişler.
Those at my work place do not seem
(to be)good people.
Ki as a Conjunction
This word ki replaces the English words who, that, which when joining two ideas in relation to each other.
- Oran, ki sen bugün gördün, benim en iyi arkadaşım.
Oran, who you saw today, is my best friend
- Matematik, ki bir çok insan nefret eder, benim en sevdiğim derstir.
Maths, which many people hate, is my favorite class.
Ki is used for joining two sentences together.
Biliyorum ki beni seviyorsun.
I know that you love me.
Although understandable: is NOT the natural Turkish method.
This method is borrowed from Persian grammar by foreigners to "Make Turkish Easy?" is not natural Turkish:
It is INCORRECT!
Correct Turkish uses the -dik Relative Object participle:
Beni sevdiğini biliyorum.
I know that you love me.
[LIT: Me that-love-you knowing-am-I]
sev-diğ- that loves
+ -in you / your
+ -i [obj.]
At last, the verb: biliyorum I know
Both ideas "the person" and "their loving" become objects of the verb
This is more suitable to the Turkish point of view.
Turkish ki as a Suffix of Location
Ki is affixed to the static location condition -de/-da to produce the suffix -deki/-daki
This forms an adjective of location who/which is in..
This constuction replaces the English the relative pronoun "who which that what"
In English the relative pronoun is often is glossed over or not included at all and can be omitted.
[who is] in the garden.
[which is] on the table.
The relative ki who, which, that is necessary in Turkish.
If ki is omitted Bahçede çocuk is meaningless:
bahçedeki çocuk → The child WHO-is-in-the-garden.
This constuction shows that "the child" is specifically "in the garden".
- Elimdeki para.
The money (that is) in my hand, The money (that) I've got.
- Yanımdaki para yok.
I don't have money with me.
[LIT: the that is by my side money does not exist.]
Turkish Ki as an Idiom
Ki is often used for completion purposes meaning which is… / that is… / what is…
- oysa ki
if it is thus, if that's the way it is, thus, so then
- hal bu ki
the condition is this, that is the way it is, so then
These utterances are often written as a single word
[although they are not]
- öyle ki
such that, in fact
[LIT: it is thus]
- yeter ki no longer
[LIT: its enough that]
- kaldı ki moreover, besides
[LIT: it remained that]
however, yet, though
[LIT: if it is that way]
seeing that, since, as long as
[LIT: in that]
- halbuki so, then
[LIT: the condition is this]
as if, it seems, although
[LIT: if it is that]
[LIT: that of yesterday]
ki is vowel harmonised after letter -ü
[LIT: that of the evening]
- az önceki a little earlier on
[LIT: less (time) before]
Ki as a Relative Pronoun
The suffix -ki can be added to the completed noun.
It is used in place of the noun + noun completion.
- Ali'nin arabası, Ayşe'nin arabasından daha güzeldir.
Ali's car is better than Ayşe's car.
- Ali'nin arabası, Ayşe'ninkinden daha güzeldir.
Ali's car is better than Ayşe's (one).
- Koltuklarımız, babamın koltuklarından daha yenidir.
Our chairs are newer than my father's chairs.
- Bizimkiler, babamın koltuklarından daha yenidir.
Our ones are newer than my father's chairs.
- Bahçenin domatesi, seranın domatesinden daha lezzetlidir.
Garden tomatoes are tastier than the greenhouse tomatoes.
- Bahçeninkiler, seraninkinden daha lezzetlidir.
The garden ones are tastier than the greenhouse ones.
- Mehmet'in kitabi yerine Ahmet'inki.
Mehmet's book is in place of Ahmet's.
Turkish ki as a separate word
The various meanings of Turkish ki. It completes the final verb action within the sentences.
- who, which, that, when
- so, that, such, that
- seeing, considering that
- as, though, "I wonder"
- Film o kadar üzücüydü ki, ağladım.
The film was so sad, that I had to cry.
- Hava o kadar sisliydi ki, hiç bir şey göremiyordum.
The weather was so foggy, that I hardly saw anything.
- Herkes bilir ki, dünya yuvarlaktır.
Everybody knows that the world is round.
- Oturdum ki, biraz dinleneyim
I sat down (in order) to have a rest.
- Neden bu kadar sinirleniyorsun ki?
What are you getting upset for/about?
A conversation using ki:
İçerdeki masanın üzerinde duran gömlekler yeni mi?
Are the shirts on the table inside new ones?
Evet bugün aldım. Seninkileri de gördün mü?
Yes I bought Then today. Did you see yours?
Yok, nerede ki?
No, where are they then?
They are in the bed-room.