verbs > Turkish Infinitive

Turkish Infinitive

infinitive
The infinitive is a verbal noun. "to walk, walking"
It has no inflection to indicate mood or tense.

The suffix of the Turkish infinitive is -me(k) -ma(k)
[the final -k is often dropped when adding suffixes]

As a noun it can be suffixed with person and movement suffixes.

Positive Verb Root:
gelmek
[gel-mek]
to come, the coming

Negative Verb Root:
bakmamak
[bak-ma-mak]
to not look, the not looking.

Turkish Negative infinitive Formation

Verbs have a separate infinitive form:

  • Negative particle -me- -ma- is added to the positive verb stem →
  • gelmemek
    [gelme-mek]
    to not come
  • almamak
    [alma-mak]
    to not take.
  • This method of forming the negative is true for all Turkish verbs.

Abrasion on Turkish Infinitive -me -ma

  • Infinitives are abraded by dropping final -k
  • gelme going
    bakmama not looking

Personal pronouns and extended suffixes are be added as required:

  • gelmemiz
    [gelme-miz]
    our coming
  • gitmemeleri
    [git me me leri ]
    their not going
  • bakmasından
    [bakma-sı-ndan]
    from his looking.
  • Gülmemeniz imkansiz.
    [gül-me-me-niz]
    Your not laughing is impossible.

Turkısh Abraded Infinitive Examples

  • yapmak to do
  • yapma
    [yap-ma]
  • the doing
  • yapmama
    [yapma-ma]
  • the not doing
  • vermek to give
  • verme
    [ver-me]
  • the giving
  • vermeme
    [verme-me]
  • the not giving
  • ağrımak to ache
  • ağrıma
    [ağrı-ma]
  • the aching
  • ağrımama
    [ağrıma-ma]
  • the not aching
  • bilmek to know
  • bilme
    [bil-me]
  • the knowing
  • bilmeme
    [bilme-me]
  • not knowing
  • kopmak to snap
  • kopma
    [kop-ma]
  • snapping
  • kopmama
    [kopma-ma]
  • not snapping
  • görmek to see
  • görme
    [gör-me]
  • seeing
  • görmeme
    [gör-me-me]
  • not seeing
  • kurumak to dry
  • kuruma
    [kuru-ma]
  • drying
  • kurumama
    [kuruma-ma]
  • not drying
  • gülmek to laugh
  • gülme
    [gül-me]
  • laughing
  • gülmeme
    [gülme-me]
  • not laughing

Turkish Infinitive as an Object of a Verb

The infinitive being a noun can take suffixes:

  • Geçen hafta ödevimi yapmayı unuttum.
    [yapma-yı = the doing]
    I forgot to do my homework last week.
  • Garajdan arabamı almayı unuttum.
    [alma-yı = the taking]
    I forgot to pick up (take) my car from the garage.
  • Ali, sana söylemeyi unuttu.
    [söyleme-yi = the telling]
    Ali forgot to tell you.
  • Affedersin, seni aramayı unuttuk.
    We're sorry, we forgot to call you.
  • Filmi izlemeyi unuttum.
    I forgot to watch the film.
  • Kediyi beslemeyi unuttum.
    I forgot to feed the cat.
  • Mehmet'i sormayı unuttunuz
    You forgot to ask Mehmet.
  • Kapıyı kapamayı unuttum.
    I forgot to close the door.
  • Pencereyi açmayı unuttular.
    They forgot to open the window.
  • Pencereyi açmamayı hatırladılar.
    [açma-MA-yı = the NOT opening]
    They remembered NOT to open the window.

Turkish Verbal Objects

Some turkish verbs take the Movement Towards suffix [-(y)e/-(y)a] as their object.

To say: she started to write / she started writing

The infinitive:
yazmak to write is the object of the verb she started…

The suffix shows its relationship to başlamak
yazmaya başladı
[yazma-ya]
she started to write / she started (to the) writing.

Special Case istemek to want

The verb istemek. to want is a special case:
It causes no modification of the verb it governs:

  • Yazmak istiyorum.
    I want to write.
  • İçmek istiyorlar.
    They want to drink.
  • Kalmak istemedin.
    You didn't want to stay.
  • Çalışmak istemeyecekler.
    They will not want to work.

This also applies in English:
"I want writing", "They want drinking" is incorrect.

The concept of "wanting…" does not affect the verb being governed in any way.

When istemek governs anything other that a verb then the objective case must be used.

In examples below istemek does not govern the verb kalmak
It DOES govern a person

Therefore the direct object pointer IS required.

  • Kalmamanızı istiyoruz.
    We want you not to stay.
    [Kalmama-nız-ı]
  • Kalmanızı istemiyoruz.
    We do not want you to stay.
    [Kalma-nız-ı]
  • Kalmasını istemiyorlar.
    They don't want him to stay.
    [Kalma-sı-n-ı]
  • Kalmamalarını istemiyorum.
    I don't want them not to stay.
    [Kalmama-ları-n-ı]

Verbal Nouns in English

To understand and comprehend verbal nouns must be recognised as such.

  • The writing is on the wall.
  • The drinking of this water is prohibited.
  • Smoking is allowed.
  • Leave your suitcase in the waiting room.
  • He is working in the drying shed.

Examples of Suffixed Turkish Infinitives

Suffixes follow Vowel Harmony and Consonant Mutation Rules.

Buffer letter -y- is used to keep vowel suffixes apart.

  • Kitabı okumaya çalıştı.
    He tried [to] to read the book.
  • Yüzmeyi severim.
    I like to swim.
    [I like the swimming]
  • Onu yapmaktayım.
    I am just doing it.
    [in/at doing it]
  • sigara içmeyi bıraktım.
    I have given up [the] smoking cıgaettes.

Extended Turkish Infinitive Forms

Turkish Infinitive with Basic Suffix
PositiveNegative
gelmekto comegelmemeknot to come
gelmeyeto comegelmemeyeto not to come
gelmeyito come (obj.)gelmemeyinot to come (obj.)
gelmektein cominggelmemektein not coming
gelmektenfrom cominggelmemektenfrom not comimg
gelmekleby/with cominggelmemekleby/with not coming
  • Kesmeyi bıraktı.
    He stopped [the] cutting.
  • Sürmeyi öğreniyorum.
    I am learning [the driving] to drive.
  • Gülmemeye çalışıyorlar.
    They are trying not to [to] laugh.

Turkish Infinitive with Personal Pronoun Endings

The infnitive drops its final -k of -mek -mak in all persons.

Personalised Infinitive
PositiveNegative
gitmekto gogitmemeknot to go
gitmemmy goinggitmememmy not going
gitmenyour goinggitmemenyour not going
gitmesihis/her/its goinggitmemesihis/her/its not going
gitmemizour goinggitmememizour not going
gitmenizyour goinggitmemenizyour not going
gitmeleritheir goinggitmemeleritheir not going

Turkish Heavy Infinitive:

The meaning of the heavy infinitive is the same as the standard infinitive.

It is used when there may be ambiguity in the context.

The heavy infinitive is little used.

The heavy infinitive can also have personal pronouns and or case endings added to it.

Positive Verbs:
-lık -lik ix suffixed to the standard infinitive.

The final -k of -mek is often dropped when adding the -lik suffix.

gelmek to come
gelme(k)lik the coming

Negative Verbs:
are slightly different in that the -mek/-mak changes to -mez/-maz

bakmamak not to look
bakmazlık the not seeing

Personalised Heavy Infinitive
PositiveNegative
gelme(k)likto comegelmezliknot to come
gelme(k)liğimmy cominggelmezliğimizour not coming
gelme(k)likleritheir coming gelmezliğihis not coming

Turkish: How to say: To pretend (not) to…

The heavy infinitive is little used except for the following "special case":

The Negative Heavy Infinitive in the ablative case followed by the verb gelmek means to pretend (not) to…

This "pretend not to" form is in daily use.

  • It is a reduplicated negative ie:
  • bakmazlık
    bakMAmazlık
    to not NOT to see.
  • Bana bakmamazlıktan geldi.
    He pretended (not) to look at me.
  • Onu görmemezlikten geliyorsunuz.
    You are pretending (not) to see it.
  • Ayşe hanımı sevmemezlikten gelir misiniz?
    Are you pretending (not) to like Miss Ayşe?

This construction is a special locution.

It only used with gelmek as an auxiliary verb.

görmemezlikten gelmek
ignore
turn a blind eye
overlook
look through
give someone the go by
close one's eyes to
pretend not to see