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"The Turkish Language Explained for English Speakers"
A Treatise on Turkish Grammar.
Paperback – 502pp.
"The Turkish Language Explained for English Speakers"
A Treatise on Turkish Grammar.
Kindle eBook.

Manisa Turkish

Manisa Turkish answers some of the difficulties which learners may encounter along their way.

Wikipedia says: "The best website for learning Turkish with detailed explanations."
About the Turkish Language
Consonant Changes

Consonants may change for ease of pronunciation before vowels.

k → ğ p → b

Consonant Mutation

Suffixes change spelling to harmonize with the parent word.

Suffix Harmony
Vowel Harmony

The vowels of suffixes must mirror the final vowel of the root word being suffixed.

Their corresponding front / back sounds form the basis for vowel harmony rules.

Vowel Harmony
Suffixes of Location

These suffixes show motion towards, motion from and static location.

Suffixes of Location

Formation of Turkish Spatials
"here and there"

Spatials
Buffer Letters

Certain consonants are inserted as "buffers" between vowels.

These buffers are always Y, N, S.

Buffer Letters
Verb Tenses

Suffixes are added verb stems to indicate its positive or negative form.

Present Future Past

Personal pronuns are suffixed to tenses to incicate person

Personal Pronouns
Verb Moods

Further suffixes are then added for tense and person.
Further moods - may, might, can, can't, must - are added to produce a new verb.

"I can" "I can not" "I must"
Turkish Alphabet

Consists of twenty-one consonants and eight vowels.

The Turkish alphabet is phonetic as each letter always retains it own sound.

Alphabet
Articles and Gender

There is no definite article "the" as a subject.

Grammatical Articles

There is a specifier "the" as a direct object suffix.

Direct Object
Ownership

There is a Reflexive Genitive in Turkish where both the "possessor" and "possessed" are suffixed.

Ownership

Turkish Possessive Contructions explained

Possessive

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