participles > Turkish iken "while, when"

Turkish iken while

There are various ways of describing time relationships in English, consider:
When I saw him, I waved at him.
When I see him, I shall wave at him.
As soon as I see him I shall wave at him.
Whenever I see him I wave at him.
Every time I see him I wave at him.
If I see him, I shall wave at him.

It can be seen from above that the Adverbial Clause of time has a slightly different sense in relation to tense, time and duration. The Adverbial Clause of Time are best studied by example, as it is sometimes rather difficult at first to relate the English Constructions to the corresponding Turkish ones.
Turkish uses the Relative Adjectival Participles widely and at first sight they may be difficult to analyze. They are logical constructions however, and as such a little reading and study will be rewarding in hastening understanding.

Turkish iken, -ken, -yken meaning while, when

iken can stand alone or be suffixed as -ken when added to consonants or -yken when added to vowels. It is invariable and does not follow the rules of vowel harmony. It does not take further suffixes. iken is used when the verb action is continuous at a point in time. It may also follow an adjective.

Turkish iken with the Present Tenses

-ken is always suffixed to the verb tense sign. As the subject is not always evident, then it is normally stated as in the examples below.
Mehmet kasabaya yürüyorken onu gördüm. I saw Mehmet while (he was) walking to town.
Sen kasabaya yürüyorken, seni gördüm. I saw you while (you were) walking to town.
Ben kasabaya yürüyorken, seni gördüm. I saw you while (I was) walking to town.
Biz kasabaya yürüyorken, onu gördük. We saw him while we were walking to town.
Biz kasabaya yürürken, onu her gün görürüz. Every day we see him when (while) we walk to town.
[Simple present habitual yürü-r-ken]
Siz dans ediyorken, dinleneyim. Let me rest while you are dancing.
Onlar dans ederken, dinlenelim. Let's rest while they dance.
Personal Subject Pronouns are used to point to the subject s iken can not be suffixed to pronouns.

Turkish iken with Adjectives

iken can be used with adjectives, in this case it can stand alone or be suffixed:
Ben, hasta iken (hastayken), uyurum. I sleep while (when) I am ill.
Biz, o hastayken, merak ettik. While he was ill, we worried.
Onlar, siz uykuda iken, meşgul olacaklar. They will be busy while you are asleep.
Uykudayken, soyuldular. They were robbed while they were asleep.
the 3rd Person Plural comes from the last verb it is in in the Passive Mood thus states the subject. Subject pronouns are used to make the meaning clear

Turkish iken with the Past Tenses

If the action is continuous in the past then iken can be translated into English: As -were -ing
As I was going to town I saw him.
As we were going to town I saw him.

iken with the Past Definite Tense:
Ben İngiltere'deyken, yağmur yağdı. While I was in England, it rained.

iken with the Past Continuous Tense:
Biz İngiltere'ye giderken, yağmur yağıyordu. As we were going to England it was raining.

tam iken just as

A further construction with iken is just as or right at the moment that. This construction uses the word tam complete to introduce the Adverbial Clause at the point in time:
Biz tam evden çıkarken, yağmur yağmağa başladı. Just as we were leaving the house it started to rain.
Onlar tam kapıyı açarken, anahtar koptu. Just as they were opening the door the key broke

Turkish iken with Future Tense

When attached to the Future Tense the meaning of iken becomes just as I was about to or instead of
İngiltere'ye gidecekken, Türkiye'de kaldık. Instead of going to England we stayed in Turkey.
This may seem difficult to understand but it can be analyzed that iken as/while is suffixed to the Future Participle gidecek meaning that about to go/which will go and the Turkish aspect becomes apparent. We, while about to go to England, did something different. ["We stayed in Turkey".]
This sense is best translated into English as: instead of -ing
Türkiye'de kalacakken, İngiltere'ye gidelim. Instead of staying in Turkey let's go to England.

Turkish iken with Past Participle in -miş

This construction produces -mişken means having done
yapmışken having done

yapılmışken having been done
Bu iş bitirilmişken, eve gidelim. This job having been finished, lets go home.
Aklıma gelmişken, söyleyeyim. Having come to (my) mind, let me tell you.
Hazır gelmişken bir kahveni içelim. Having already come, let us drink a coffee of yours.

Turkish iken with Negative Simple Tense

-mezken, -mazken means though not or while it isn't (This is a kind of official language. You can only hear these sentences in news or commercials.)
Galatasaray'ın yıldız futbolcularından Necati Ates, kendilerine ödeme yapılamazken, bazı yabancı oyuncuların alacaklarının verildiğini duymanın üzüntü verici olduğunu söyledi.
One of the star players of Galatasaray, Necati Ates, has said that it was disappointing to hear that some foreign players' debts had been paid while there can not be a payment for themselves.

Konu hakkında henüz herhangi bir bilgiye ulaşılamazken, araştırmaların devam ettiği bildirildi.
Here is the "Turkish" English:
While any information can't be reached yet about the subject, it has been told that the investigations keep on.
Here is the "English" English:
Although as yet no information can be communicated about the subject, it has been stated that investigations are continuing.

We can see some differences of tense and negation in the change from "Turkish" English to "English" English. This is because of:
(1) Basic grammatical structure differences between the two languages.
(2) The difference in local daily usage of each language.
(3) It also underlines the fact that literal translation between the two languages is often difficult and it is better to arrive a suitable translation in one's own language.
The above examples could be translated into English in a different way whilst still retaining the intended meaning in Turkish. Note that usually a positive statement follows this negative form.

In order to get the meaning for Though not, while it isn't
The following method is formal:
Çalışmazken susuzum. Although I have not worked I am thirsty..
Sürmezken yolu bilirim. Although I do not drive I know the road.
From the last two examples above it can be seen that iken takes its person from the main verb at the end of each sentence.

In order to get the meaning for though not or while it isn't we use -a rağmen in spite of, despite so we can couch these sentences in this manner:
Çalışmamama rağmen susuzum. Despite not working I am thirsty.
Ben sürmememe rağmen yolu bilirim. Although I do not drive I know the road.
1st sürmeme short infinitive negative from sürmemek not driving
2nd -me is noun producing suffix (sür-me-me)
3rd -m is suffix for 1st sing. Person (sür-me-me-m) my not driving.
And Finally -e is suffix for movement towards (dative case) sür-me-me-m-e.
Conversational stress is on the first syllable, preceding the negation suffix.

Bilmememe rağmen. Although I don't/I didn't know.
Bilmeme to not know (short infinitive negative from bilmemek)
Bilmemem My not knowing
Bilmememe rağmen Despite my not knowing/Although I don't/didn't know


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