In English the expressions - Good evening and Good night - are singular. In Turkish they are plural [as is the Spanish - Buenos Dias.]
Merhaba - Hello!, Hi!Merhaba corresponds to Hello!, Hi! in English. Its usage is identical in either language.
The reply for Merhaba is Merhaba
Merhaba is not used for - Hello! - on the telephone. This type of Hello is Alo
Selam - Hello!, Hi!
Selam is more informal than Merhaba
Selamünaleyküm: literally means - May God's peace be upon you - and is used by Muslims as a greeting.
Aleykümselam - s said in reply to the greeting - Selamünaleyküm.
Hoş geldin (familiar/singular) or Hoş geldiniz (polite/plural) corresponds Welcome! in English.
The reply for Hoş geldin(iz) is Hoş bulduk. We found it well.
Allahaısmarladık, Hoşca kalın - Goodbye
Hoşça kal (familiar) or Hoşça kalın (polite) corresponds to Stay well. /Keep happy.. in English.
Güle güle - Goodbye - [lit: Smiling, smiling.] - The person staying behind, says Güle güle
The person is leaving leaves, says Allahaısmarladık or Hoşca kalın .
Güle güle corresponds Go well. in English.
Allahaısmarladık - Goodbye - [Lit: I leave you to God's care.].
Either Allahaısmarladık or Hoşca kalın is correct in informal situations. But in formal situations Hoşca kalın is better.
İyi günler - Good day, [or: Have a good day.] . Its usage is almost the same as in English. It is also the formal of Allahaısmarladık and Hoşca kalın . The reply for İyi günler is either İyi günler or Size de - To you also.
Görüşürüz - See you later. [Lit: We will see each other.] The reply for Görüşürüz is Görüşürüz.
Allah rahatlık versin - This is an informal expression for Good night. [Lit: May God give you peace and comfort.] This is generally used by the members of the family at home or friends before going to bed. The reply for Allah rahatlık versin is Sana da (sing.), Size de (pl.) - And to you also.
Thanks and be happy.
Teşekkür ederim - Thank you - this is used in all normal situations. The reply for teşekkür ederim is Bir şey değil or Rica ederim - You are welcome.
sağol (familiar) or sağolun (polite) [Lit: Health to you. equates to thank you but is more sincere than Teşekkür ederim. The reply for sağ olun is sen de sağ olun - And health to you also. - However we conjugate sağ ol for persons. So: sen de sağ ol is the response for sağ ol and siz de sağ olun is the reponse to sağ olun.
Gözün aydın (familiar/singular) or Gözünüz aydın (polite/plural) [Lit: "May your eyes shine."] - When something which the speaker longing for comes true, he tells the others about it.
Their response is Gözün(üz) aydın - Your eyes shine - to the speaker. The expression indicates that the others share the speaker's happiness, and that they are also happy about it.
The reply for Gözünüz aydın is Teşekkür ederim
Hayırlı olsun - Let it be with goodness - Used when someone opens a shop or starts a new business, others say Hayırlı olsun to him. The expression indicates the speaker's wish that the new business will bring him prosperity, and it will be profitable.
The reply for Hayırlı olsun is Teşekkür ederim
Güle güle kullan / kullanın - Use it with a smile. - When someone buys a thing, such as a new clothes, shoes or a car his friends say Güle güle kullan / kullanın - This indicates the speaker's wish that use it with joy. Sometimes Hayırlı olsun is said in such condition.
The reply for both expressions is Teşekkür ederim.
Have a good jouney.
İyi yolculuklar / Hayırlı yolculuklar - Have a nice journey.
İyi tatiller - Have a nice holiday
İyi şanslar - Good Luck
İyi eğlenceler - Have a nice time
İyi seneler / yıllar, Mutlu seneler / yıllar - Happy new year
Doğum / Yaş günün kutlu olsun! - Happy birthday!
Afiyet olsun - Bon appetite, Enjoy your meal.
Well done and take it easy.
Kolay gelsin - May it come easy. - Used when the speaker sees someone working, busy with something. It can be a physical, or mental work. It indicates the speaker's wish that whatever that person is doing at the moment, may be easy for him.
The reply for Kolay gelsin is Teşekkür ederim
Aferin - Bravo, Well done! - Very often used in competition and especially to congratulate young children.
Sorry about it.
Afedersin (singular/familiar) or Afedersiniz (plural/polite): Excuse me./Pardon me.
Affedersin(iz)! Merkeze nasıl gidebilirim? - Excuse me! How can I get to the city centre?
Özür dilerim: I am sorry.
Sometimes Affedersin(iz) is used instead of Özür dilerim.
However Özür dilerim is more formal, it sounds better in formal situations.
Bir şey değil, Rica ederim: You are welcome
Used in reply to Teşekkür ederim
Ways of saying - "Yes" - in Turkish
Evet : Yes - in the sense of answering yes / no questions in English.
Tamam : Yes in the sense of - O.K
Peki : Yes - in the sense of - All right, O.K, If that's so then.
Oldu : Yes in the sense of - That's good, agreed.
Evet, efendim : Yes, sir or madam.
Var : Yes - there is. [Answers questions which contain - var mı.? - Is there.?]
Ways of saying No in Turkish
Hayır : No - in the sense of answering yes / no questions in English.
Olmaz : No - in the sense of That's not possible, I don't agree with you, That won't do
Yok, Yo : informal and gentle saying of No. [Also answers questions containing Yok mu.? - Isn't there.?]
Hayır efendim : No sir. / No madam. - "Efendim" must be used in this case else this answer could be construed as being curt.
Words of Condolence - What a pity.
Geçmiş olsun - May it pass away - This expression is used when a friend is ill or has had an accident, like - Get well soon. - in English
The reply for Geçmiş olsun is Teşekkür ederim.
Başın sağ olsun (singular/familiar) or Başınız sağ olsun (plural/polite) : Health to your head. - This equates to - My condolences to you., So sorry about it. - in English.
The reply for Başınız sağ olsun is Siz de sağ olun, Dostlar sağolsun