verbs > Turkish Verbal Nouns

Turkish Verbal Nouns and Adjectives

How to say on Turkish: until, when, since before, after

The suffix -(y)e, -(y)a Sigifies: repeated activity …

geçe meaning passing from geçmek to pass, [indicates the time at which something happens]:
Saat dörde on geçe geldiler. They came at ten past four. [Lit: Hour from-four ten passing they-came.]
diye meaning saying from demek to say [indicates what the sigh says]
TEHLIKE diye bir levha. A sign saying DANGER. [Lit: DANGER saying a sign.]
rasgele (rast gele) haphazardly or randomly from rast gelmek to meet by chance [indicates the manner of doing]
Bazen rasgele düşüncelerim var. Sometime I have random thoughts.

Repeated, it has an idiomatic use:
Gide gide postaneye mi gittin? Going and going, was it really to the post-office you went?
Güle güle! (Leave)smilingly! said to someone who is departing. Gülmek to smile.
Güle güle kullan! Use it with smile! said to someone who has obtained a new item that they desired.

-(y)erek, -(y)arak by doing / as a

This adverb is constructed by the addition of the suffix -rek or -rak to the third person singular of subjunctive mood of the verb meaning by doing or as a. It produces a single act or continued activity simultaneous with or slightly before the main verb.
bilerek knowingly
bilmeyerekunknowingly
Kapıyı açarak evden gitti. Opening the door, he left the house.

Used with negative verbs
bilmeyerek unknowingly
istemeyerek reluctantly

Koşarak (kös-a-rak) gitti. He went a-running.
Gülerek [gül-e-rek] baktı. She looked laughingly.
Telefon ederek [ed-e-rek) sordunuz mu? Have you inquired by telephoning?
Gülümseyerek; [gülümsi-ye-rek) karşılık vermiş. She answered smilingly.
Yürüyerek [yürü-ye-rek) gideceğim. I shall go by foot (by walking).

Olarak from olmak to become is translated by as a or being)
Dost olarak. As a friend.. [being a friend]
kesin olarak definitely [being sure]
Memur olarak. As a civil servant. [being a civil servant]
ilk kez olarak for first time [being the first time]

-(y)ip, -(y)ıp, -(y)up, -(y)üp and, also

Used when there are two verbs with identical suffixes joined by and/also to simplify the first one.
Kalkıp gittik. [NOT kalktık gittik.] We got up and we left
Oturup konuşuyorlar. [NOT oturuyorlar konuşuyorlar] They are sitting and talking.
Gidip bakmalıyız. We must go and see.

-(y)ince, -(y)ınca, -(y)ünce, -(y)unca On doing or When

Signifies action just prior to the main verb:
Otobüs gelince kalkarım. When the bus arrives, I will get up. [LIT: On the bus arriving, I will get up.]

-inceye kadar, -inceye dek, -inceye değin until

This signifies until [LIT: to-the-on-doing the-amount]
Otobüs gelinceye kadar, gidemedik. Until the bus comes, we cannot go. [the amount to the bus on coming, we cannot go]
Otobüs varıncaya kadar, gidemedik. Until the bus arrives, we cannot go. [the amount to the bus on arriving, we cannot go]
Otobüs duruncaya kadar, inmeyin. Until the bus stops, do not alight. [the amount to the bus stopping, do not get off]

-ene kadar, -ana kadar, -ene dek, -ana dek, -ene değin, -ana değin until

The meaning is until but less formal
Otobüs gelene kadar, gidemedik. Until the bus arrives, we cannot go.

-esiye/-asıya to the point of

he meaning is to the point of
Her gece bayılasıya iciyorum. I'm drinking every everry night to the point of passing out.

-eli, -eli beri, -eliden beri, -diX -eli since

All the means since with the -di past ending conjugated as needed.
Since we came to Istanbul it has not rained.
Biz İstanbul'a geleli hiç yağmur yağmadı.
Biz İstanbul'a geleli beri hiç yağmur yağmadı.
Biz İstanbul'a geleliden beri hiç yağmur yağmadı.
Biz İstanbul'a geldik geleli hiç yağmur yağmadı.

-meden/-madan evvel, -mezden/-mazdan evvel before, without

-meden/-madan önce, -mezden/-mazdan önce is also used

Siz gitmeden evvel beni uyandırınız. Wake me up before you go.
Memet gelmeden önce bu iş bitirmeliyiz. We must fininsh this job before mehmet comes.

-dikten sonra, -dıktan sonra, -dükten sonra, -duktan sonra after doing

after doing, the converse of -meden evvel / -meden önce
Beni uyandırdıktan sonra gidiniz. Leave after waking me.

-r -mez, -r -maz as soon as

Ben oturur oturmaz telefon çaldı. As soon as I at down, the telephone rang.
The subject must be stated and the tense it taken from the main verb.

Mehmet varır varmaz, hep beraba çarşıya gideceğiz. As soon as Mehmet arrıves we we will all go to the shops together.

-dikçe/-tikçe, -dıkça/-tıkça so long as or the more that/all the while that

Dünyanın dönme hızı gittikçe artıyor. The more the world spins its speeds increases.

The verb gelmek to go becomes gittikçe as it goes is translated as gradually
Dünyanın dönme hızı gittikçe artıyor. The world's spin speed is gradully increasing.

The verb olmak to become/to be forms oldukça as it becomes/as it is/quite
O kız oldukça güzel görünüyor. That girl over there is quite good looking.

Adam yaşadıkça yaşlanıyo.r Man ages as he lives.

Güldükçe gülesim geliyor. The more I laugh, the more I feel like laughıng!

-dikten başka apart from doing/in addition to doing

O, kapıyı açtıktan başka, evden gittim. He, in addition to opening the door, left the house.

-diği müddetçe as long as, all the time

O çalıştığı müddetçe şarki söyler. He sings all the time he works.

-diği halde although or in a state of doing…

Bağırdığım halde kimse yardıma gelmedi. Although I shouted, no one came.
Bacağı alçıda olduğu halde eve döndü. He returned home with his leg plastered.

-diği için, -diğinden because of doing…

Bir hali aldığı için, vergi ödemeliyim. Because of my purchasing a carpet, taxes I must pay.

-diği kadar, -dığı kadar, -duğu kadar, -düğü kadar, as much as

İstediğiniz kadar kalınız. Stay as long as you want.
Senin uyuduğun kadar ben uyuyamam. I cannot sleep as much as you do.

-eceğine/-acağına, -ecek/ -acak yerde instead of doing…

İzmir'e yürüyeceğine, otobüsü bineceğim. Instead of walking to Izmir, I will ride a bus.

-mekle/-makla with/by doing…

Günümü hep yazı yazmakla geçirdim. All of my day I spent by writing.

-mektense/-maktansa, -mekten ise/-maktan ise rather than

Ankara'ya gitmektense, İstanbul'a gittim. Rather than go to Ankara, I went to Istanbul.

-meksizin, -maksızın, -meden, -madan without doing…

-meden/-madan is more frequently used.

Otobüsü binmeksizin, İstanbul'a gittim. Without riding a bus, I went to Istanbul.
Otobüsü binmeden, İstanbul'a gittim. Without riding a bus, I went to Istanbul.

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