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Turkish Language and Grammar FAQ

The FAQ's - Sıkça Sorulan Sorular (SSS)

FAQ (01) How many Vowels are there in Turkish?
FAQ (02) Why is a buffer letter sometimes -y- and at other times -n- is used?
FAQ (03) Why are some words repeated in Turkish for no apparent reason?
FAQ (04) What are the main differences in Turkish and English pronunciation
FAQ (05) Turkish has a funny letter Ğ with a hat on. What does it do?
FAQ (06) Why does gitmek to go change its letter -t to a -d in gidiyor?
FAQ (07) When do I use sağ olun instead of teşekkür ederim for saying thank you?
FAQ (08) What happened to the letter -e- in demek to say as it becomes diyorum I say?
FAQ (09) I do not understand the Infinitive. Please explain about it.
FAQ (10) Please list the common question words what? why? when? etc…
FAQ (11) I am having difficulty recognizing the Object Participle -dik. Please explain.
FAQ (11A) Please tell me more about the -dik participle.
FAQ (12) Please explain about -deki. The Adjective of Location Suffix.
FAQ (13) Please explain about -ip/-ıp/-up/-üp. The Verbal suffix of Apposition meaning and, also.
FAQ (14) Tell me about the Direct Object Suffix -i/-ı/-u/-ü
FAQ (15) Please describe The Turkish Language in a nutshell for me.
FAQ (16) Tell me about the Position of the Question Particle mi? mı? mu? mü? in sentences.
FAQ (17) I hear buyurun everywhere. What does it mean?
FAQ (18) Please explain the -sin/-sın/-sun/-sün suffix. I always thought it meant you…
FAQ (19) What is the difference between her kez, her zaman, daima when talking about instances of time.
FAQ (20) Why is ile with, and, also sometimes in its full form and sometimes a harmonized suffix -le/-la?
FAQ (21) I thought that istemek to want did not govern a direct object, but I have seen it do so. Why is this?
FAQ (22) How do I say too much… too many…?
FAQ (23) evin means your house and also of the house or the house's. How can I tell which -in suffix to use?
FAQ (24) When forming Simple Present Tense, how do I choose the suffix from -ar, -er, -ir, -ır, -ur, -ür?
FAQ (25) Please explain about the suffix -ince and -inceye kadar
FAQ (26) Why does the last letter of ağaç tree change to -c in ağacın your tree?
FAQ (27) How do say I know in Turkish
FAQ (28) Why has çalışamayan who cannot work got the -a- after the -ş ?
FAQ (29) Dünyalarından translates from their world. Shouldn't this be from their worlds plural?

FAQ (01) How many Vowels are there in Turkish?
There are eight vowels in Turkish A E I İ O Ö U Ü
They are usually divided into the A-UnDotted Group AIOU and the E-Dotted Group EİÖÜ for Vowel Harmony purposes
FAQ (02) Why is a buffer letter sometimes -y- and at other times -n- is used?
Buffer letter -y- for the Object Condition, -yi as in kediyi the cat and Motion Towards Condition, -ye as in kediye to the cat when the word is not already extended by a suffix. Thus buffer -y- is only used suffixed to a bare noun stem in the first suffix position.
It becomes -n- when it is the second suffix which is added to the word, kedisini his cat and kedisine to his cat. Thus buffer Letter -n- is only used when the Objective or Motion Towards suffixes are in second suffix position, this is to alert the listener that a suffix is already preceding.
The Rule is: The buffer letter -n- is used on nouns which have already been extended by the addition of a suffix.
FAQ (03) Why are some words repeated in Turkish for no apparent reason?
For instance yavaş means slow. As an adjective is describes a noun "A slow car".
But repeated yavaş yavaş means slowly.
As an adverb this describes a manner of doing something. "He drove the car slowly". There is a valid reason as adjectives when repeated, become adverbs in Turkish. This is a normal part of Turkish Grammar.
FAQ (04) What are the main differences in Turkish and English pronunciation

The letter C changes in Turkish it is pronounced as an English J
So the English name John is spelt Con in Turkish and the Turkish word cam - (glass material) is pronounced jam in English. The rule is see a "C" and say a "J"

Listen to: cep, cacık, cimri
Letter C is pronounced as English "J".   See cam and say jam "glass (the material)"
Letter Ş is pronounced as English "SH".   See şef and say shef "chief"
Letter Ç is pronounced as English "CH".   See çek and say chek "pull"
FAQ (05) Turkish has a funny letter Ğ with a hat on What does it do?
This is the Turkish so-called "soft g" (yumaşak g)
This letter is not pronounced at all, it merely lengthens the preceding vowel. It is very like the silent "gh" in the English words light, freight, ought.. etc. The rule is see a ğ with a hat on then keep it silent.
Listen to: ağa, dağ, iğne
FAQ (06) Why does gitmek to go change its letter -t to a -d in gidiyor?
Verb Root Spelling Exceptions:
Only four verbs change their root spelling from -t to -d when adding a vowel :
gitmek to go becomes gidiyorum I am going etc.
ditmek to shred this verb is often used in recipes becomes didiyor he shreds
tatmak to taste (of) becomes tadıyor it tastes (of..)
etmek to do/perform becomes ediyorum I am doing etc.
This verb etmek includes all verbs containing etmek such as kaybetmek to lose and affetmek to pardon, to excuse which soften the -etmek part of the verb:
kaybediyorum I am losing/I lose
affediyorum I am pardoning/I pardon
All other verbs retain their original spelling, for instance:
bitmek to end bitiyor it is finishing NOT bidiyor
batmak - to sink batıyor it is sinking NOT badıyor
FAQ (07) When do I use sağ olun instead of teşekkür ederim for saying thank you?
sağ olun be healthy, be strong is used as thank you for a service which was not necessarily needed to be performed. or for which someone has gone out of his way to help you.
teşekkür ederim thank you ([Lit: a thanking perform I [from Arabic] is used in normal circumstances and receiving. The rule is If in doubt then use teşekkür ederim.
FAQ (08) What happened to the letter -e- in demek to say as it becomes diyorum I say?
We know that the present tense sign is -iyor, we also know that if a verb stem ends in a vowel it loses this vowel (Turkish abhors two vowels together as there are no native diphthongs) when the present tense sign is added.
So demek must also lose this final vowel leaving a bare verb stem as the letter d- only hence demek becomes d-iyorum, d-iyorsun. The same applies to all other two letter verb stems yemek becomes yiyorum.
The Future Tense also changes demek - diyeceğim, yemek yiyeceksin
(-(y)ecek is added to the verb root of ye-mek thus producing producing ye-y-ecek which has historically abraded to become yiyecek).
The Subject Participle demek becomes diyen, diyenler who says, yemek becomes yiyen, yiyenler who eats.
There are exceptions to this group:
deyince on saying, deyip also saying and yeyince on eating and yeyip also eating.
FAQ (09) I do not understand the Infinitive please explain about it.
The Infinitive is the name of a verb such as swim (verb) its name is "to swim" but in English we often substitute a verbal noun (the) swimming.
He is going for a swim.
We are going swimming.
She went to swim in the sea.

In all these cases anything with "swim" in it is a noun. The different tenses are supplied by the verb in the sentence.
The possessives can also be added -im -in -i.. etc my, your his
My swimming is good.
Mother is taking Mehmet for a swim.
I want you to swim every day.
The -k of -mek/-mak is dropped to make the Verbal Noun yüzme swim, swimming, to swim:
yüzmem my swimming
yüzmen your swimming
yüzmesi his swimming
yüzmeniz your swimming (plural)
yüzmeleri their swimming
Further suffixes can be added:
yüzmemden from my swimming
yüzmende in your swimming
yüzmesini his swimming (suffixed as an object)

Yüzmem iyidir. My swimming is good.
Geçen yıl yüzmem iyiydi. My swimming was good last year. Past tense
Yarın yüzmeleri iyi olacak . Tomorrow, their swimming will be good. Future Tense
Ali'nin yüzmesi, Mehmet'in yüzmesinden daha iyidir. Ali's swimming is better than Mehmet's swimming.
Ahmet'in gelmemesini istedim. I wanted Ahmet NOT to come. [lit: Ahmet's-his-not-coming wanted-I]
Ahmet'in gelebilmesini istedim. I wanted Ahmet to be able to come.
Ahmet'in gelebilmesini istemedim. I did not want Ahmet to be able to come.
FAQ (10) Please list the common question words what? why? when?
where? nerede?
where to? nereye?
where from? nereden?
how? nasıl?
how much? ne kadar?
when? ne zaman?
what? ne?
why? neden?
why? niye? [only used when: indignant/angry/disbelieving]
what for? niçin?
who? kim?
which? - hangisi?
FAQ (11) I am having difficulty recognizing the Object Participle -dik. Please explain.
The -dik, -duk, -dık, -dük Participle
This Participle is subject to both Vowel Harmony and Consonant Mutation Rules.
So you can find -tik, -tuk, -tık, -tük.
If a further suffix with a vowel is added the the final -k is also subject to Consonant Mutation: -diği, -duğu, -dığı, -düğü or -tiği, -tuğu, -tığı, -tüğü
geldiğim zaman When I came, When I come (gel + -diğ + -im)
uçtuğun halde Although you fly, Although you flew (uç + -tuğ + -un)
yürüdüğü yol The road that he walks, The road that he walked (yürü + -düğ + -ü)
bakmadığımız zaman When we didn't/don't look, (bak + -ma + -dığ + -ımız)
içtiğiniz için because you (plural polite) drink/drank (iç + -tiğ + -iniz)
öpüştükleri zaman When they kiss/kissed (öpüş + -tük + -leri)
The -dik Participle is used both in the Present or Past tenses according to the sentence main verb context.
Examples of Tense influenced by the Main Verb
Ali'nin geldiği zaman, çarşıya gidiyoruz. When Ali comes we are going to the shops.
Ali'nin geldiği zaman, çarşıya gittik. When Ali came we went to the shops.
Thus it becomes that both ideas "Ali" and his "coming" both become a compound participle (verbal adjective) to describe zaman (time). This is more suitable to the Turkish point of view than the relative when construction which English uses.
FAQ (11A) Please tell me more about the -dik/-tik -dık/-tık -dük/-tuk -duk/-tük participle.
A participle is actually and adjective made from a verb form. As an adjective in Turkish it must precede the noun which it qualifies. This then is how to recognize that it is a an adjective by its position in the sentence. It looks like a verb, but it is not a verb. The verb always comes last in a sentence, and hence is easy to recognize as a verb. If it is not last in the sentence then generally speaking it will be an adjectiveç.
Formation: Participle + Possessive Suffix - Noun - Verb
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  • Oturduğum [Otur-duğ-um] ev budur. This is the house in which I live.
  • En çok sevdiğin [sev-diğ-in ] yemek nedir? What is the food that you like best?
  • Yazdığı [Yaz-dığ-ı] mektubu aldım. I have received the letter that he wrote.
  • Geldiğimiz [Gel-diğ-imiz] araba çalınmış. The car in which we came has been stolen, they say.
  • Beğendiğiniz [Beğen-diğ-iniz] kumaşı bulamadım. I could not find the material that you liked.
  • Yaptıkları [Yap-tık-ları] iyiliği unutamayacağım. I shall not be able to forget the kindness that they have shown.
  •  
This participle, which is used for present as well as past time, is identical with the first person plural of the past definite tense, but a possessive suffix (for person) is added to make it equivalent to a relative pronoun. The final -k changes to before the possessive suffix, except in the plural.
Examples:
  • Oturduğum ev budur. This is the house in which I live.
  • Oturduğun ev budur. This is the house in which you live.
  • Oturduğu ev budur. This is the house in which he lives.
  • Oturduğumuz ev budur. This is the house in which we live.
  • Oturduğunuz ev budur. This is the house in which you live.
  • Oturdukları ev budur. This is the house in which they live.
Participles can be used as adjectives:
Mehmet, söylediğim cevabı beğenmemiş. Mehmet seemed not to like the answer that I spoke.
Participles can be used as anouns:
Mehmet, söylediğimi beğenmemiş Mehmet seemed not to like what I said.
Examples in all persons:
  • Mehmet, söylediğimi beğenmemiş. Mehmet did not like what I said.
  • Mehmet, söylediğini beğenmemiş. Mehmet did not like what you said.
  • Mehmet, söylediğini beğenmemiş. Mehmet did not like what he said.
  • Mehmet, söylediğimizi beğenmemiş. Mehmet did not like what we said.
  • Mehmet, söylediğinizi beğenmemiş. Mehmet did not like what you said.
  • Mehmet, söylediklerini beğenmemiş. Mehmet did not like what they said.
FAQ (12) Please explain about The Adjective of Location Suffix. -deki/-teki, -daki/-taki
The Suffix -deki is an Adjective of Location which descibes where a thing actually is.
The cat which is on the mat is black is translated as Kilimdeki kedi kara renklidir. [Lit: Mat-on-which-is cat-the black colour-is.]
In English it is a Relative pronouns which is, who is as in The cat which is on the mat is black coloured.
English can omit the "which" relative pronoun The cat on the mat is black.
Turkish must describe where the cat is sitting by means of an adjective Kilimdeki kedi
FAQ (13) Please explain about -ip/-ıp/-up/-üp The Verbal suffix of Apposition meaning and, also.
Pazara gidip her şey satmak istiyorum. = I want to go to the market and sell everything. This is the normal way of saying Pazara gidiyorum her şey satmak istiyorum. = I want to go to the market and I want to sell everything. -ip does not take any other suffixes after it is used.
If the two verbs are in negative apposition (i.e. One is positive and the other negative the the particle de also, and is used to show the apposition.
Pazara gidip de hiçbir şey satmak istemiyorum. = I want to go to the market and not sell anything.
The -ip suffix takes the tense, mood and person of the final verb.
We would like to go and see Rome. = Romaya gidip görmek isteriz.
Odanın içinde yer bulup oturdu. He found a place in the room and sat down.
Çünkü, onlar her zaman bir yolunu bulup istedikleri kadar sigara içiyorlar. Because they always find a way and smoke as much as they wish.
Eczaneye gidip bir ilaç almak istemiş. He wanted to go to the chemist and buy some medicine.
Bilgisayardaki hataları bulup onaracak program var mı? Is there a programme to find errors and to repair them on the computer?
Gelip de halimi gördün mü? When you came (On coming) did you see the condition that I was in?
Bilip de anlatmamak. Knowing and not explaining.
Bilip de anlatamamak. To know but not to be able to explain.
Bilip de bilmemezlikten gelmek To know and/but to pretend not to know.
FAQ (14) Tell me about the Direct 0bject Suffix (-i/-ı/-u/ü)
In English we make both the subject and object of a sentence substantive by the use of the same definite article "the"
The man closed the door. The subject is understood as substantive in Turkish so it does not need a definite article. "The" does not exist in Turkish there is no "the man" is it merely translated as "adam"
Turkish DOES have a definite article "the" as an object suffix -(y)i -(y)ı -(y)u -(y)ü when added to bare nouns:
Adam kapıyı (kapı-yı) kapattı The man closed the door
Turkish DOES have a definite article "the" as an object suffix -ni -nı -nu -nü when added to already extended nouns:
Adam kapısını (kapı-sı-nı) kapattı. The man closed his door.
The -ni suffix makes the extended [already suffixed] noun his door substantive as a direct object.
Examples:
  • Direct Object pointer -i for Simple Noun
  • Evi boyuyorum. [ev-i] I am painting the house.
  • Direct Object pointer -ni for Extended Noun
  • Evini boyuyorum. [ev-i-ni] I am painting his house.
  •  
  • Direct Object pointer -yi for Simple Noun
  • Arabayı boyuyorum. [araba-y-ı] I am painting the car.
  •  
  • Possessive Pronoun -sı plus Direct object pointer -nı for Extended Noun.
  • Arabasını boyuyorum. [araba-sı-nı] I am painting his car.
  •  
  • Possessive Pronoun -ları plus Object Pointer -nı for Extended Noun.
  • Arabalarını boyuyoruz. [araba-ları-n-ı] we are painting their car.
  •  
  • Possessive Pronoun -sı plus Direct object pointer -nı for Extended Noun
  • Arabasını boyuyor musunuz? [araba-s-ı-n-ı] Are you painting his car?
  •  
  • Possessive Pronoun -ınız plus Direct object pointer for Extended Noun.
  • Mehmet, arabanızı boyamıyor mu? [araba-nız-ı] Isn't Mehmet painting your car?
  •  
  • Possessive Pronoun -si plus Direct object pointer -ni for Extended Noun.
  • Kedisini aramıyor muyum? [kedi-s-i-n-i] Aren't I looking for his cat?
  •  
  • Direct Object Pointer-i
  • Beni istiyor musun? [ben -i] Do you want me?
  •  
  • Direct Object Pointer-i
  • Seni istemiyor muyum? [sen -i] Don't I want you?
This Direct Object Suffix which makes the object substantive is one of the most difficult hurdles for English people to surmount when speaking, reading and understanding The Turkish Language.
FAQ (15) Please describe The Turkish Language in a nutshell for me.
A Mini Nutshell Overview of The Turkish Language.
In Turkish words are changed by fixing other words on to them. These suffixes show motion towards, location and motion from..
These suffixes change their spelling according to set rules and they must follow the same vowel pattern (Vowel Harmony) as the suffixed word. They may also have a consonant change (Consonant Mutation) for ease of pronunciation.
The suffixes added to the stem of a verb may indicate its positive or negative form. Further suffixes are added for tense and person.
Further mood meanings to verbs such as "may, might, can, can't" are also in suffix form, thus producing a new word.
Nouns are suffixed with possessor and the motion or location words are then added.
There is no word for "the" and also there are no gender forms (no "le" or "la" as in French).
Adjectives precede their noun and always remain in their basic form no gender thus no agreement.
The sentence form is SOV Subject, Object, Verb.
FAQ (16) Tell me about the Position of the Question Particle mi? mı? mu? mü? in sentences.
About Questions: The question particle mi? mı? mu? mü? is placed after the item being questioned. It is not always the verb that is in question. This is the same for English.
Mehmet, is he going home? Mehmet, eve gidiyor MU? Question on the verb. (go - gitmek)
Is it home that Mehmet is going to? Mehmet, eve Mİ gidiyor? Question on the Object (home - ev)
It it Mehmet who is going home? Mehmet Mİ, eve gidiyor? Question on The subject (Mehmet)
FAQ (17) I hear buyurun everywhere. What does it mean?
Buyurun, Buyrun, Buyurunuz has many meanings in different situatuions:.
  1. Said to a visitor Buyurun! means that the speaker is happy to welcome you to their home.
  2. Shopkeepers say Buyurun meaning May I help you?
  3. When offering refreshments to guests Buyurun! corresponds to Please accept this! Please help yourself.
  4. Entering buildings, lifts (elevators) etc, Buyurun! corresponds to After you!
  5. When permission is asked, assent is given with the word buyurun! meaning Please come in! Please enter! Please do!
  6. When answering a telephone Buyurun! is used.
FAQ (18) Please explain the -sin/-sın/-sun/-sün suffix; I always thought it meant "you"?
When -sin is uses WITHOU a tens sign is signifies let him do..
Positive Verb Stem: olmak to become/happen/occur becomes Olsun! Let it be!
Negarive Verb Stem: olmamak not to become becomes Olmasın! Let it not be!
koşmak to run becomes Koşsun Let him run
The negative is koşmasın let him not run!
The plural Koşsunlar Let them run!
Negative plural is Koşmasınlar! Let them not run!
While in the Hamam (Turkish Bath) you might say Keseci gelsin! [Lit: Let the masseur come.] I am ready for the masseur!
Don't get mixed up.! The 3rd ierson imperative ending is added directly to the verb stem yazsın Let him write but if it is added to a tense sign as in yazıyorsun then it is the 2nd Person tense sign You are writing
If there is NO TENSE SIGN before the -sin or -sinlar then it should be translated as "Let him. (not)" or "Let them (not)"
FAQ (19) What is the difference between her kez, her zaman,daima when talking about instances of time?.
Zaman (Noun) time is the universally used word for time when: Doğum günün ne zaman? When is your birthday?
Daima (adverb) means always, every time, forever, evermore, ever, forever and ever, forevermore and it usually is placed first in the sentence; Daima seni seviyorum. I will love you forever.
Turkish uses the Present Continuous seviyorum as it is more vivid than the Simple Present used in English = I love you severim
kez (noun) means particular (single) occasion(s)
defa (noun) means occasion so her defasinda = each time
sefer (noun) means journey but her seferinde = every time (used as an idiom)
There are other words in general use in Turkish which mean time(s) or occasion(s)
vakit (Noun) the right time, the time (for doing something) is used:
Boş vaktim yok. I haven't got time to spare, Vaktin varsa? If you have time?
kere (noun) time, times, occasion, instance:
1 bir kere once..
2 iki kere twice.
3 times: İki kere iki dört eder. Two times two makes four.
"her kez" and "her kere" are never used to mean "every time"
FAQ (20) Why is ile with, and, also sometimes in its full form and sometimes a harmonized suffix -le/-la?
The word for with, and, also in Turkish is ile.
This is one word which can stand on its own after the word it modifies, in which case it does not follow Vowel Harmony Rules but is always written and spoken ile.
Mehmet ile with Mehmet
domuz ile with the pig
arkadaşın ile with your friend
Itcan also be suffixed to the word in which case it does follow vowel harmony rules and becomes -le/-la or -yle/-yla after vowels.
Mehmet'le with Mehmet
arkadaşınla with your friend
paltosuyla with his overcoat
bir arabayla with a car
When -(y)le/-(y)la is suffixed to a root word ending in a vowel then the buffer letter is always -y-
kediyle, kedi ile with the cat
kedisiyle, kedisi ile with his cat
iskemleyle, iskemle ile with the chair
eli ile, eliyle with his hand
paltosuyla, paltosu ile with his overcoat
babayla, baba ile with father
babasıyla, babası ile with his father
Whether to use ile as stand alone or as a suffix is a free choice of the speaker or writer ; there is no hard and fast rule.
FAQ (21) I thought that istemek to want did not govern a direct object, but I have seen it do so. Why is this?
The verb istemek to want is a special case as it causes no modification of the verb it governs:
Yazmak istiyorum. I want to write.
Içmek isterler. They want to drink.
Kalmak istemedin. You didn't want to stay.
Çalışmak istemeyecekler. They will not want to work.
This also applies in English we also cannot say I want writing or they want drinking. The object pointer is not required by istemek to want as the concept of "wanting.." does not affect the verb being governed in any way.
When istemek governs anything other that a verb then the objective case must be used. Th followıng examples show that istemek is not governing the verb kalmak directly, but it governs a person. Hence the direct object pointer is required.
Kalmanızı istiyoruz. We want you to stay. [Kalma-nız-ı]
Kalmanızı istemiyoruz. We do not want you to stay. [Kalma-nız-ı]
Kalmasını istemiyorlar. They don't want him to stay. [Kalma-sı-nı]
Kalmamalarını istemiyorum. I don't want them not to stay. [Kalmama-ları-nı]
FAQ (22) How do I say too much, too many?
This a common difficulty for the student of Turkish. The dictionary equivalent is fazla in excess or simply çok fazla very excess or gereğinden fazla more than is required. Old style Turkish will say lüzumdan fazla in excess of its necessity.
(1) Too meaning "very"
In daily conversational Turkish çok very is used to convey the meaning too much, too many In such a sentence as I didn't buy it, it was too expensive. the "too" should simply be translated by çok very. Onu almadım, çok pahalıydı I didn't buy it, it was too expensive.
(2) Too meaning "overly, excessively"
fazla in excess should be used where the context does not make sense by using çok very. Baban, seninle fazla sabırlıdır. Your father is too patient with you.
FAQ (23) evin means your house and also of the house or the house's. How can I tell which -in suffix to use?
This is a famous Turkish Language ambiguity. It must be translated in context. Usually if it is genitive then it it will possess something else evin penceresi the window of the house and the "something else" will have the "possessed" specifier suffixed. ev-in duvar-ı the wall of the house evin duvarı.The wall of your house thus becomes evinin duvarı [ev-in-in duvar-ı]
If there is a problem with it being personalized evin your house the you can add the Personal Pronoun as well senin evin your house. You might say Senin evin temiz. or Evin temiz. both mean Your house is clean.
If the word your house needs to be further suffixed (ie.) from your house evinden then the original form is correct (senin is not required)
FAQ (24) When forming Simple Present Tense, how do I choose the suffix from -ar -er -ir -ır -ur -ür?
This is the only tense which shows some irregularity in formation. The actual tense sign is -r in the positive and -mez in the negative.
The positive does not seem to have regularity and these 13 irregularities have to be learned.
FAQ (25) Please explain about -ince On doing… and -inceye kadar until…
How to say On doing, When I do -yınca/-yince -yunca/- yünce
  • bakınca on looking, bakmayınca on not looking
  • arayınca on lookıng for, aramayınca on not looking for
  • kesince on cutting, kesmeyince on not cutting
  • çıkınca on going out, çıkmayınca on not going out
  • gidince on coming, gitmeyince on not coming
  • gülünce on laughing, gülmeyince on not laughing
  • görünce on seeing, görmeyince on not seeing
The person is taken from the subject of the sentence and the tense is taken from the main verb in the sntence
  • Kasap, eti kesince bıçağını düşürdü
  • On cutting the meat the butcher dropped his knife.
  • Mehmet, bana vurunca bizden kaçtı
  • Mehmet escaped from us as he hit me.
Examples in other verb moods:
  • Bu işi yapamayınca, ondan vazgeçtim
  • On not being able to do thıs job, I gave up
  • Kapı vurulunca biri/birisi hemen onu açtı.
  • On the door being knocked, someone immediately opened it.
  • Seni görebilince çok mutluyum.
  • On being able to see you, I am very happy
  • Seni görebilince çok mutluydum.
  • On being able to see you, I was very happy.
  • Seni görebilince çok mutlu olacaklar.
  • On being able to see you,they will be very happy
  • Seni görmeyince çok mutsuzdum.
  • On not seeing you, I was very unhappy.
  • Seni göremeyince çok mutsuzdum.
  • On not being able to see you, I was very unhappy.
How to Say until… -(y)inceye kadar -(y)ünceye kadar -(y)ıncaya kadar -(y)uncaya kadar
Formation -ince + ye is in the movement toward condition (dative) [-ince-ye] used with the postposition kadar amount) = [- e kadar = to the amount of doing.]
  • Biz telefon edinceye kadar bekleyecek. [ed-ince-ye from "etmek"]
  • She is going to wait until we telephone.
  • Çocuk uyuyuncaya kadar yanında oturunuz. [uyu-yunca-ya from "uyumak"]
  • Stay with the child until she sleeps.
  • Hırsız hava kararıncaya kadar bekledi [karar-ınca-ya from "kararmak"]
  • The thief waited until dark.
  • Güneş çıkıncaya kadar evde kalalım. [çık-ınca-ya from "çıkmak"]
  • Let's stay at home until the sun rises.
  • Acıkıncaya kadar yürüyelim [acık-ınca-ya from "acıkmak" - "to be hungry"]
  • Let's walk until we are hungry
FAQ (26) Why does the last letter of ağaç tree change to -c in ağacın your tree?
This orthographic change is due to Consonant Mutation Rules.
These are the Complete Rules of Consonant Mutation.
1. If the word ends in one of these Unvoiced Consonants [p ç t k]:
When adding a suffix beginning with a vowel this last letter of the root word changes to its voiced equivaent:
[p → b ç → c t → d k → ğ] form:
kitap book becomes kitabı his book
kazanç profit becomes kazancı his profit
kilit lock becomes kilidi his lock
köpek dog becomes köpeğiniz Your dog
2. If the word ends in an Unvoiced Consonant [p ç t k f h s ş]:
When adding a suffix beginning with a consonant then the suffix consonant changes to its unvoiced Form [d → t]:
kilit lock becomes kilitte in the lock
köpek dog becomes köpekten from the dog
sabah morning becomes sabahtan from the morning
giriş exit becomes girişte at the exit
FAQ (27) How do I say I know in Turkish?
The two words meaning to know how to… or to know someone… in Turkish:
bilmek to know how to.…
yüzme biliyorum. I know how to swim.
tanımak to know somebody
Ali, beni tanıyor. Ali knows me.
There can be some differing ways to say the same thing in Turkish for instance:
Do you know how to play football?
To ask Exactly? Futbol oyamasını biliyor musun? Do you play football?
Or to ask Particular? Futbol oynamayı biliyor musun? Do you know how to play football?
Or to ask Generally speaking? Futbol oynama biliyor musun? Do you know about football playing?
FAQ (28) Why has çalışamayan got the -a- after the ?
This the Negative Potential "cannot" mood verb sign as a SUBJECT PARTICIPLE.
This mood is easily formed in all tenses just by inserting an -e- or -a- before the negative suffix of any negative verb whether it be active, passive, reflexive, reciprocal,or causative (in effect we form a completely new verb with its own infinitive)
The Positive Potential
çalışmak = to work. çalışabilmek = to be able to work Hence: çalışabilen = who is able to work/who can work
The Negative Potential
çalışmamak = not to work. çalışamamak = not to be able to work. Hence: çalışamayan who is unable to work/who can not work. Just the -ama- makes a Negative Potential.
It is called a Subject Participle because it DESCRIBES the Subject and as a participle it is a VERBAL ADJECTIVE (same thing), consequently it PRECEDES or REPLACES the noun which it DESCRIBES. All Participles are actually adjectives so must always have a noun following to describe.By their position in a sentence you cannot mix them with a verb which must always come at the end of a sentence as the last word in that sentence.
Example:
As a SUBJECT DESCRIBING ADJECTIVE Bir çalışamayan adam. = A man who is unable to work. oras a NOUN REPLACEMENT Bir çalışamayan. = One who is unable to work.
FAQ (29) Dünyalarından translates from their world. Shouldn't this be "from their worlds" (plural) ?
The suffix for his is -(s)i so dünyası (dünya-sı) his world becomes in the plural dünyaları (dünya-lar-ı) his worlds
The suffix for their is -leri but dünyaları (dünya-ları) becomes both sıngular or plural their world OR their worlds as dünyalarları is wrong because the -lar suffix cannot be re-duplicated.
Of course it seems that "their worlds" should be dünyalar-ları but suffixes ending in -lar are never doubled, therefore the context should make the singularity or plurality of the noun in question clear.
However if it is necessary to be explicit in the meaning, then the Personal Pronouns are used:
dünyası becomes onun dünyası his world for singular and dünyaları becomes onun dünyaları his worlds for plural
dünyaları their world/their worlds becomes onların dünyası their world for singular and onların dünyaları their worlds for plural.
So the question example can be made explicit:
Dünyalarından = onların dünyasından from their world AND onların dünyalarından from their worlds OR onun dünyalarından from his worlds