Turkish Language - The suffixes and their structure

Suffixes are those little words which are attached to the end of words to either change their meaning or modify the meaning in a sentence. There are two main types of suffix:
(1) Inflexional Suffixes - A suffix which changes the meaning of a word in a sentence. Example: drink, drinking [adding -ing suffix changes meaning of a verb]
(2) Constructional Suffixes - A suffix which alters the meaning of a noun. Example: a drink, a drinker [adding -er suffix changes meaning of a noun]

(1) Inflexional Suffixes and Simple Structured words

An inflectional suffix added to a word changes its meaning within a sentence, these extended words are called Simple Structured words.
(A) Plural Suffixes: -ler, -lar
evler - houses
arabalar - cars

B) Condition of Noun suffixes: -i, -e, -de, -den
evi - the house [obj.]
eve - to/toward the house
evde - in/on/at the house
evden - from/by the house

(C) Personal Suffixes: -im, in, -i, -imiz, -iniz, -leri
evim - my house
evin - your house
evi - his/her/its house
evimiz - our house
eviniz - your house
evleri - their house(s)

(D) Noun Completion Suffixes: -(n)ın, -ı
arabanın kapısı - the door of the car
evin bacası - the house's chimney
sokağın tozu - the dust of the street

(E) Tense Suffixes: -di, -miş, -ecek, -ar, -ıyor
yazdı - he/she/it wrote
yazmış - apparently he/she/it wrote
yazacak - he will write
yazar - he writes (habitually)
yazıyor - he is writing (now)
All of the suffixes in (A) to (E) above must conform to Vowel Harmony and Consonant Mutation Rules.

(2) Structural Suffixes and Derived Nouns

Structural suffixes are those which change the meaning of a noun within a sentence. Such nouns suffixed with a structural suffix are called Derived Words. An non-suffixed noun is called a root. A root (noun) which has taken an inflexional suffix is called a Simple Word. Sometimes roots are call Simple Structured Words.
Suffixes of Structure and their Derived Nouns:
(A) -ci -çi, -cı -çı, -cu -çu , -cü -çü - This suffix signifies Profession, Occupation, like "-er" in English - worker.
çilekçi - strawberry grower/seller
madenci - miner/mineral worker
halıcı - carpet maker/seller
işçi - worker
bulaşıkçı - dish-washer
yolcu - traveller
gözcü - watchman

(B) -li, -lı, - lu, -lü - This suffix signifies - containing. furnished with.
şekerli - sugared, sugary, sweetened
tuzlu - salty, salted
bahçeli - containing a garden [bahçeli ev - a house with a garden]
selli - flooded
sütlü - milky, containing milk
gamlı - sad, worried

(C) -siz, -sız, - suz, -süz - This suffix signifies - without
This suffix has the opposite meaning to the -li suffix above, thus producing - un- ("unsugared"), -less ("sugarless"), without [not containing] ("without sugar")
şekersiz - unsugared, sugarless, without sugar, unsweetened
tuzsuz - without salt, unsalted, not salty
arabasız - without a car
sütsüz - without milk
dişsiz - toothless

(D) -lik, -lık, - luk, -lük - This suffix forms abstract nouns.
This suffix produces nouns and derivations from other nouns and adjectives. It stands for -ness as in "goodness". It also forms nouns of place - çimen - grass produces çimenlik - lawn, meadow, grassy place
şekerlik - sugar-shaker, sugar producing place
tuzluk - salt-cellar, salt bed, salt producing place
gözlük - spectacles
sözlük - dictionary
yolluk - travel
sazlık - reed bed, place of reeds
bozukluk - spoiled, rottenness

(E) -gi -ki, -gı -kı, -gu -ku, -gü -kü - This suffix forms nouns of action or result of action, mainly from verbs.
sevgi (sevmek) - affection
saygı (saymak) - esteem
içki (içmek) - an (alcoholic) drink
bilgi (bilmek) - knowledge, data
sergi (sermek) - exhibition, show
sorgu (sormak) - interrogation
etki (etmek) - effect, influence

(F) -gin -kin, -gın -kın, -gun -kun, -gün -kün - This suffix forms nouns and adjectives of resulted action.
bilgin - scholar, learned
saygın - respected, esteemed
üzgün - sad, anxious
vurgun -stricken, smitten

(G) -daş -taş (sometimes has abraded to -deş) - This suffix signifies a "fellow relationship " - a relationship of co-operation.
yurttaş - fellow-countryman
meslektaş- colleague
sırdaş - confidant
vatandaş -patriot, comrade
kardeş -sibling, brother, sister

(H) -sal, -sel.
This suffix makes adjectives of association often end on -ic in English ("history - historic, historical").
kumsal - strand (of sand)
kırsal - rural - [kir - countryside]
belgesel - documentary
bilimsel - scientific
sanatsal - artistic
kimyasal - chemical

In order to establish if a word is a Derived word or a Root, we must inspect as follows:
If we remove any syllables that may be considered as suffixes from a word, and a meaning remains, then it is Derived Word, always providing that there is a modified meaning on re-application of the removed suffixes.

Let us consider the word - perde - curtain. Now let us remove the syllable -de. The word - per - remains, but there is no such word in Turkish. So in this case -de is not a Structural Suffix, therefore - perde - is a root. The answer is a Simple Structure Word.

Now let us examine the word - perdelik - curtaining. Let us remove the syllable -lik. The remaining word - perde - has a meaning in Turkish therefore it must be a root. Moreover when replacing the suffix there is still a connection in meaning between - perde - and - perdelik.
Perde - curtain [Cloth that is hung to cover a window]
Perdelik - curtaining [The materials from which curtains are produced]
Here we can see that there is a connection in the meaning between both words. From this we can deduce that - perdelik - is a Derived Word and that the syllable -lik is Structural Suffix.

Now let us consider the word balta - axe. Let us remove the syllable -ta. The word remaining is bal - honey. If we now replace the syllable -ta we find the is no connection between the two meanings, therefore in this case -ta is not a suffix and so the root is - balta - axe - itself.
Balta - axe [a tool for chopping]
Bal - honey.
From this we can see - balta - is not suffixed it is a root word. The syllable -ta is not a Structural Suffix, it is a syllable that is part of the root word.

(3) Compound Structural Words

Two or more word without taking suffixes or buffer letters can produce a new meaning. These are called Compound Nouns. As each part on the compounded noun is a separate word originally, then vowel harmony rules are not applied to the compound.
Güzel + yurt = Güzelyurt - a town in Anatolia - (beautiful + village)
Afyon + kara + hisar = Afyonkarahisar - a town in Anatolia - (Afyon + black + fort)
Yeşil + ırmak = Yeşilırmak - a town in Anatolia - (green + river)
Sivri + sinek = sivrisinek - mosquito - (sharp + fly)
Kara + sinek = karasinek - housefly - (black + fly)