adjectives > Turkish Demonstratives

Turkish Demonstratives "this, that one, these, those ones"

Demonstrative Adjectives: "this, these, that, those"

  • Describe and demonstrate a particular noun:
  • "This house" is red.
  • "Those children" are young.
  • Demonstrative Adjectives are invariable in Turkish and cannot be suffixed.

Demonstrative Pronouns: "this one, that one, these ones, those ones"

  • Stand in place of a particular noun:
  • "This" is red.
  • "This one" is red.
  • "Those" are young.
  • "Those ones" are young.
  • Turkish Demonstrative Pronouns can be suffixed.
  • bu this (here)
    OR this just mentioned.
  • bunlar these
  • şu that (nearby)
    OR that (which follows)
  • şunlar those (nearby)
  • o that (over there, yonder)
  • onlar those (yonder)

Turkish Demonstrative Simple Forms:

  • bu, şu, o this, that, that yonder
  • bu kedi this cat
  • şu fincan that cup
  • [near to, between us]
  • o adam that man
  • [over there, yonder]

Turkish has two words for "that, those"

When suffixing demonstratives the buffer letter -n- is always used.

The plurals are bunlar şunlar onlar

About Turkish Demonstrative - şu şunlar, o onlar

Şu that [nearby]
plural şunlar those [between]

Şu signifies something "near by" or "between" the speakers.

Şu also means "that which follows" →
şu tavsiye the following recommendation.

Care must be taken using şu and its extensions:
It is also used in a derogatory sense:

  • Şu adama bakın!
  • Look at that bloke!
  • Şunu istemedim
  • I didn't want that!
    ["damn thing"]
  • Şu herif kim?
  • Who the hell is that fellow?
  • O that [over there]
  • plural onlar those [yonder]
  • O signifies items far away or which does not lie between the speakers.
  • O is used for happenings in foreign countries and cities.

Turkish Demonstrative Adjective in Questions şu ne? What's that?

  • Question:
  • Şu ne? What is that? [just there]
  • Answer:
  • O bir gazete. That is a newspaper.

Şu bir gazete is incorrect and cannot be used in answers.

The Suffixed Forms of the Turkish Pronouns

Turkish Demonstrative Pronouns can be suffixed:

  • Onu bana ver!
  • Give me that one!
  • Bunlardan bir tane alin.
  • Take one from these.
  • Şunlara çok gülüyorum!
  • I'm really laughing at those ones!

Turkish Demonstrative bu this

SingularPlural
buthisbunlar these
buna to thisbunlara to these
bunun of thisbunların of these
bunu this (object)bunları these (obj.)
bunda in/on/at thisbunlarda in/etc. these
bundan from thisbunlardan from these
bununla with thisbunlarla with these

Turkish Demonstrative Şu that, that there

SingularPlural
şu thatşunlar those
şuna to thatşunlara to those
şunun of thatşunların of those
şunu that (object)şunları those (obj.)
şunda in/on/at thatşunlarda on those
şundan from thatşunlardan from those
şununla with thatşunlarla with those

Turkish Demonstrative O that over there

SingularPlural
o that yonderonlar those yonder
ona to thatonlara to those
onun of thatonların of those
onu that (object)onları those (obj.)
onda in/on/at thatonlarda on those
ondan from thatonlardan from those
onunla with thatonlarla with those

The Turkish Demonstrative suffix -ca concerning

  • bunca all this
  • bunlarca all these
  • onca all that
  • onlarca all those
  • şunca all that
    and şunlarca all those are only used disparagingly.

Ne demek olduğu şunlarca anlaşılmamıştır?
What do you mean that all those have not been understood?

  • bu kedilerthese cats
  • o kediler. those cats
  • The meanings of bunca and onca are plural but only used with a singular object.
  • bunca kedi all these cats
  • onca kedi all those cats
  • bunca / onca replaces bu kadar / o kadar all this / that amount of..
  • Bunca emeğim boşa gitti.
    All this work of mine was in vain.
  • Bunca kitabı, kitaplıkta dursunlar diye mi aldın?
    Did you buy all these books (just) to fill the bookcase?
  • Bunca arkadaşımın arasından onu mu beğendin?
    Between all these friends of mine, was it (only) him you liked?
  • Bunca yıldır bu okuldayım, böyle olay görmedim.
    I was at this school all these years and I have not seen such a thing (before).
  • Bunca kediyi nasıl besleyeceksin ki?
    How do you feed all these cats?

The Turkish Demonstrative Reducing suffix "-cik"

Şuncacik, yaradan ölmezsin.
You won't die from such a small wound.

Adverbial Forms of the Demonstratives

bu, şu, o produce the adverbs böyle, şöyle, öyle

böyle In this way / thus
  • Onu böyle yaptım I did it like this
  • böyle is usually used with the first person pronoun.
şöyle like that / in that manner
  • Onu şöyle yapın! Do it like that!
  • şöyle is usually used with the imperative.
öyle such as that / like that
  • Onu öyle yaptı He did it like that!
  • öyle is used with past tense as it is more distant.
The -ce suffix is also used with adverbs:
  • böylece In this way / thus
    şöylece is not in general use. öylece such as that / like that

The ce suffix give a sense of completion:
Böylece iş tamamlandı. The job was completed thus(ly).

Turkish usage of böyle, öyle

Böyle bir iş yapmayın!
Don't do anything like (this) that!

Turkish uses bu and böyle for a specific actions - such as "washing the car"
Böylece onu yapın! for English: Do it that way!

  • şöyle böyle just so so
  • [Lit: like that, like this]
  • [as French "comme ci comme ca"]

When asked How are you? then şöyle böyle can be given as an answer:
"So so, I'm up and down, I'm getting on OK."

Öyle bir sağanak yağmur yağdı ki sırılsıklam ıslandım.
There was such a downpour that I got sopping wet.

"Formula Speak" Öyle mi?

  • This idiom is often used in conversation.
    Öyle mi? Well I never!, Really?