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Turkish Demonstratives this, that, these, those

Demonstrative Adjectives:
this these, that those
Describe and demonstrate a particular noun: This house is red. ; Those childeren young.
Demonstrative Adjectives are invariable in Turkish and cannot be suffixed.
Demonstrative Pronouns:
this one, that one, these ones, those ones
Stand in place of a particular noun: This is red./This one is red. ; Those are young./Those ones are young.
Turkish Demonstrative Pronouns can be suffixed.

bu this (here) OR this just mentioned
bunlar these
şu that (nearby) OR that (which follows on)
şunlar those (nearby)
o that (over there, yonder)
onlar those (over there)

The simple Forms: bu, şu, o this, that, that yonder
bu kedi this cat
şu fincan that cup (near to, between us)
o adam that man over there, yonder

Turkish has two words for "that, those"
When adding any suffixes including the plural suffix lar buffer letter n is always used with the demonstratives, thus forming the plurals bunlar, şunlar, onlar

Şu that (nearby) OR that (which follows on) and the plural şunlar those (nearby)
Şu signifies something near by or something between the speakers.
Şu also means "that which follows" as in şu tavsiye the following recommendation.

Care must be taken using şu and its extensions as it is also used in a derogatory sense:
Şu adama bakın! Look at that bloke!
Şunu istemedim I didn't want that! (damn thing)
Şu herif kim? Who the hell is that fellow? [herif "fellow, guy, bloke, chap"]

O that (over there, yonder) and the plural onlar those (over there)
O signifies items far away or which does not lie between the speakers.
O is often used for descriptions of happenings in foreign countries and cities.

The Suffixed Forms of the Turkish Pronouns

When the Turkish demonstratives are used as demonstrative pronouns then they can be suffixed:
Onu bana ver! Give me that one!
Bunlardan bir tane alin. Take one from these. Şunlara çok gülüyorum! I'm really laughing at those ones!

Turkish Demonstrative bu this
The Singular FormsThe Plural Forms
bu thisbunlar these
buna to thisbunlara to these
bunun of thisbunların of these
bunu this (object)bunları these (obj.)
bunda in/on/at thisbunlarda in/etc. these
bundan from thisbunlardan from these
bununla with thisbunlarla with these
Turkish Demonstrative Şu that, that there
The Singular FormsThe Plural Forms
şu thatşunlar those
şuna to thatşunlara to those
şunun of thatşunların of those
şunu that (object)şunları those (obj.)
şunda in/on/at thatşunlarda on those
şundan from thatşunlardan from those
şununla with thatşunlarla with those
Turkish Demonstrative O that over there
The Singular FormsThe Plural Forms
o that yonderonlar those yonder
ona to thatonlara to those
onun of thatonların of those
onu that (object)onları those (obj.)
onda in/on/at thatonlarda on those
ondan from thatonlardan from those
onunla with thatonlarla with those

The Turkish Demonstrative suffix -ca concerning

bunca all this
bunlarca all these
onca all that
onlarca all those
şunca and şunlarca are only used disparagingly.
Ne demek olduğu şunlarca anlaşılmamıştır? What do you mean that all those have not been understood?

The meanings of bunca and onca are plural but only used with a singular object.
bunca kedi, onca kedi all these/those cats means bu kediler, o kediler. these cats, those cats.

  • bunca/onca replaces bu kadar/o kadar all this/that amount of in Turkish.
  • Bunca emeğim boşa gitti.
  • All this work of mine was in vain.
  • Bunca kitabı, kitaplıkta dursunlar diye mi aldın?
  • Did you buy all these books (just) to fill the bookcase?
  • Bunca arkadaşımın arasından onu mu beğendin?
  • Between all these friends of mine, was it (only) him you liked?
  • Bunca yıldır bu okuldayım, böyle olay görmedim.
  • I was at this school all these years and I have not seen such a thing (before).
  • Bunca kediyi nasıl besleyeceksin ki?
  • How do you feed all these cats?

The Turkish Demonstrative Reducing suffix "-cik"

Şuncacik, yaradan ölmezsin. You won't die from such a small wound.

The Turkish Demonstrative Adjective şu

Question: Şu ne? What is that (just there)?
Answer: O bir gazete. That is a newspaper.
Şu bir gazete is incorrect and cannot be used in answers.

Adverbial Forms of the Demonstratives

bu, şu, o produce the adverbs böyle, şöyle, öyle
böyle In this way/thus
Onu böyle yaptım I did it like this
böyle is usually used with the first person pronoun

şöyle like that/in that manner
Onu şöyle yapın! Do it like that!
şöyle is usually used with the imperative.

öyle such as that/like that
Onu öyle yaptı He did it like that!
öyle is used with past tense as it is more distant.

The -ce suffix is also used with adverbs:
böylece In this way/thus
şöylece is not in general use.
öylece such as that/like that
The ce suffix give a sense of completion Böylece iş tamamlandı. The job was completed thus.

Turkish usage of böyle, öyle

Böyle bir iş yapmayın! translates to English Don't do anything like (this) that!
Turkish uses bu/böyle for a specific actions, such as "washing the car", whereas English uses that/that way
Turkish Böylece onu yapın! for English Do it that way!

şöyle böyle just so so [Lit: like that, like this as French "comme ci comme ca"]
When asked How are you? then şöyle böyle can be given as an answer "So so, I'm up and down, I'm getting on OK."
Öyle bir sağanak yağmur yağdı ki sırılsıklam ıslandım. There was such a downpour that I got sopping wet.

The "Formula Speak" Öyle mi? Well I never!, Really?. This idiom is often used in conversation.