|verbs > co-operative|
The Turkish Co-operative verb action is performed with another person or persons. The co-operation may be contrary in meaning. They fought EACH OTHER. In this case Turkish will use its co-operative form of the verb vuruşmak meaning to fight EACH OTHER as opposed to the basic verb vurmak to hit. Many commonly daily used words are of the co-operative form, and as we learn them we may not realize this.
The Co-operative Verb
In English it is not always apparent when a verb is co-operative, for instance the verb to collide. You can collide with a wall (a single occurrence) or with another car (co-operative occurrence). Turkish does make this distinction:
In the first case: çarpmak to bump, collide
Bir duvara çarptım I bumped a wall
In the second case: çarpışmak to bump, collide with.
Bir arabayla çarpıştım. I collided with a car
Co-operative Verb Formation
The Co-operative verb sign is -ış -iş -uş -üş and -ş is added to verb stems which end in a vowel.
Active Verb: vurmak to hit
ona vurdum I hit him
Co-operative Verb: vuruşmak to hit
Birbirleriyle vuruştular They fought each other.
[Lit: hit each other], co-operative verb.
görmek to see
Memet'i gördüm I saw Mehmet
görüşmek to see each other/to meet
Mehmet ile görüşeceğim I'm going to meet Mehmet [Lit: I will meet (see each other) with Mehmet.]
anlamak to understand
Ali'yi anlıyoruz We understand Ali
anlaşmak to understand each other/to agree
Anlaşıyoruz, değil mi? We agree, don't we?
Ali ile anlaşıyoruz. We agree with Ali. [Lit: understand each other]
Birbirleriyle with each other Mehmet ile with Mehmet
ile with is always used with co-operative verbs since the action is done by at least two persons.
- About the the verb vurmak
- When used with The Motion Toward (Dative Suffix -a/-e) it means to strike, to hit
Mehmet bana vurdu Mehmet hit me [to me]
- When used with Direct Object (Accusative Suffix -ı/-i/-u/-ü)- it means to shoot dead, to kill
Mehmet kuşu vurdu Mehmet shot the bird [dead]
Turkish Co-operative Verb Usage
Many co-operative forms are in regular use and one should begin to get the feeling in Turkish that the -iş suffix concerns something that is done in concert, either with or against and can be used with certain nouns to show "a doing together".
This "in concert" suffix also shows up in some nouns for instance giriş means entrance but can be construed to mean [Lit: an entering in concert]. Similarly çıkış exit [Lit: a leaving in concert]
Turkish Common Co-operative verbs
Also as previously mentioned many verbs with regular use are in the Co-operative form:
anlaşmak to agree [to understand together]
sevişmek to make love [with each other]
öpüşmek to kiss [with each other]
Although konuşmak to speak (with each other or with something) and çalışmak to work (with or at something or other) are not really co-operative verbs we can see that -iş- shows that these verbs show "a doing together."