Turkish Co-operative Verb

The Turkish Co-operative verb action is performed with another person or persons.

The co-operation may be contrary in meaning.
They fought EACH OTHER.

Turkish will use the co-operative form of the verb vuruşmak meaning to fight EACH OTHER as opposed to the basic verb vurmak to hit

Many commonly daily used words are of the co-operative form.

As we learn them we may not realize this.

About Co-operative Verbs

In English it is not always apparent when a verb is co-operative.

The verb to collide

You can collide with a wall [a single occurrence] or with another car [co-operative occurrence].

Turkish does make this distinction:

  • çarpmak to bump, collide
  • Bir duvara çarptım
    I bumped a wall
  • çarpışmak to bump, collide with.
  • Bir arabayla çarpıştım.
    I collided with a car

Co-operative Verb Formation

The Co-operative verb sign is ‑ış ‑iş ‑uş ‑üş and is added to verb stems which end in a vowel.

Active Verb:
vurmak to hit
ona vurdum
I hit him

görmek to see
Memet'i gördüm
I saw Mehmet

anlamak to understand
Ali'yi anlıyoruz
We understand Ali

Co-operative Verb:
vuruşmak to hit
Birbirleriyle vuruştular
They fought each other.
[Lit: hit each other]

görüşmek to see each other/to meet
Mehmet ile görüşeceğim
I'm going to meet Mehmet
[Lit: I will meet (see each other) with Mehmet.]

anlaşmak to understand each other/to agree
Anlaşıyoruz, değil mi?
We agree, don't we?

Ali ile anlaşıyoruz.
We agree with Ali.
[Lit: understand each other]

Birbirleriyle with each other
Mehmet ile
with Mehmet

ile with is always used with co-operative verbs since the action is done by at least two persons.

About the the verb vurmak
When used with The Motion Toward -a/-e [Dative Suffix]
It means to strike, to hit
Mehmet bana vurdu.
Mehmet hit me [to me]

When used with Direct Object ‑ı/‑i/‑u/‑ü [Accusative Suffix]
It means to shoot dead, to kill
Mehmet kuşu vurdu
Mehmet shot the bird [dead]

Turkish Co-operative Verb Usage

Many co-operative forms are in regular use.

The ‑iş ‑ış ‑uş ‑üş suffix concerns something that is done in concert:
[with or against] to show "a doing together".

This "in concert" suffix also shows up in some nouns for instance giriş entrance and çıkış exit
["goings and comings " in concert]

Turkish Common Co-operative verbs

Also as previously mentioned many verbs with regular use are in the Co-operative form:

  • anlaşmak to agree
    [to understand together]
  • sevişmek to make love
    [with each other]
  • öpüşmek to kiss
    [with each other]

konuşmak to speak and çalışmak to work are also co-operative verbs we can see that -iş- shows shows "a doing together."