Turkish Co-operative Verb
The Turkish Co-operative verb action is performed with another person or persons.
The co-operation may be contrary in meaning.
They fought EACH OTHER.
Turkish will use the co-operative form of the verb vuruşmak meaning to fight EACH OTHER as opposed to the basic verb vurmak to hit
Many commonly daily used words are of the co-operative form.
As we learn them we may not realize this.
About Co-operative Verbs
In English it is not always apparent when a verb is co-operative.
The verb to collide
You can collide with a wall
[a single occurrence] or with another car
does make this distinction:
- çarpmak to bump, collide
- Bir duvara çarptım
I bumped a wall
- çarpışmak to bump, collide with.
- Bir arabayla çarpıştım.
I collided with a car
Co-operative Verb Formation
The Co-operative verb sign is ‑ış ‑iş ‑uş ‑üş and -ş is added to verb stems which end in a vowel.
vurmak to hit
I hit him
görmek to see
I saw Mehmet
anlamak to understand
We understand Ali
vuruşmak to hit
They fought each other.
[Lit: hit each other]
görüşmek to see each other/to meet
Mehmet ile görüşeceğim
I'm going to meet Mehmet
[Lit: I will meet (see each other) with Mehmet.]
anlaşmak to understand each other/to agree
Anlaşıyoruz, değil mi?
We agree, don't we?
Ali ile anlaşıyoruz.
We agree with Ali.
[Lit: understand each other]
Birbirleriyle with each other
ile with is always used with co-operative verbs since the action is done by at least two persons.
About the the verb vurmak
When used with The Motion Toward -a/-e
to strike, to hit
Mehmet bana vurdu.
Mehmet hit me
When used with Direct Object ‑ı/‑i/‑u/‑ü
to shoot dead, to kill
Mehmet kuşu vurdu
Mehmet shot the bird
Turkish Co-operative Verb Usage
Many co-operative forms are in regular use.
The ‑iş ‑ış ‑uş ‑üş suffix concerns something that is done in concert:
[with or against] to show "a doing together".
This "in concert" suffix also shows up in some nouns for instance giriş entrance and çıkış exit
["goings and comings " in concert]
Turkish Common Co-operative verbs
Also as previously mentioned many verbs with regular use are in the Co-operative form:
- anlaşmak to agree
[to understand together]
- sevişmek to make love
[with each other]
- öpüşmek to kiss
[with each other]
konuşmak to speak and çalışmak to work are also co-operative verbs we can see that -iş- shows shows "a doing together."