Turkish Basic Spatials - Place and Position
Turkish Suffix of Place -re- -ra-
The suffix of place is -re or -ra meaning place/place of
Earlier we learned of bu this and şu or o that. Putting these words together by suffixing -ra- place of plus the static (locative) suffix -da in, on, at then we form the words meaning here and there etc. These words are used for a general sense of location.
burada here [LIT: bu-ra-da this-place-at]
şurada there [LIT: şu-ra-da that-place nearer-at or in between-at]
orada over there [LIT: o-ra-da that-place yonder-at]
nerede? where? [LIT: ne-re-de? what-place-at?]
In conversation these words abraded to burda, şurda, orda, nerde?
Turkish Adjective of Location -deki/-daki which is on, in, at
There is really no such suffix -deki in Turkish. -deki is actually two suffixes together. -de plus an added -ki. -de means on, in, at and -ki is that which is. The vowel in -ki is invariable it does not follow Vowel harmony Rules.
Sokaktaki araba. The car which is in the street
[LIT: Sokak-ta-ki street-in-which-is car.]
The -daki makes an Adjective of Location "that which is in."
To help to understand -deki
- In a dictionary the English word "contents" is translated as "içindekiler" in Turkish.
- This Turkish word comprises of: iç the inside becomes için of the inside
- Adding -deki that which is we arrive at a meaning içindeki that whis is of the inside
- Finally adding the plural suffix -ler to produce the word içindrkiler
[iç-in-deki-ler]= "those which are of the inside". Thus we arrive at the meaning "contents" in English.
This suffix is very important. It is heavily used conversation and reading.
The -deki or -daki is added to words to produce an adjective to describe the location of an object.
The telephone [which is] in my bedroom is broken.
Turkish trying to turn everything into an adjective will say thus:
Yatak odamdaki telefon bozuktur. [LIT: Bedroom-of-me-which-is-in telephone broken-is.]
odam-daki telefon is used as an adjective to describe just where the telephone is! LIT: Room-my-in-which-is telephone.
This method is a particular difficulty as in English we use a relative construction The telephone
which is in my bedroom is broken.
Masadaki kitap. The book (which is) on the table.
Masadaki kitabı bana verin. Give me the book (which is) on the table.
Kilitteki anahtar. The key (which is) in the lock.
Kilitteki anahtarı çıkarınız. (Would you) take the key out of the lock. [Lit: Lock-in-which-is key-the take out!]
Kutudaki kibritler nemlidir. The matches (which are) in the box are damp.
The Turkish aspect differs from English and can only be appreciated by usage and practice, as it is an alien construction for English speakers.
It can also be used as a location in time scale:
Önümüzdeki hafta. next week [LIT: Front-of-us-which-is week.]
Önümüzdeki haftanın havası çok güneşli olacak. The week ahead's weather will be very sunny.
Turkish Extended Spatials showing Movement
If we need to show movement from or movement to a place or places then we must use a different suffix such as -dan from or -a to, towards.. in order to modify the meaning:
"burdan" as spoken from here
The same construction is used in English. If a child strays too near to the fire, the mother will say: "Get away from there!".
"şurdan" as spoken from there
"ordan" as spoken from over there
"nerden?" as spoken where from?
Word Adding -a to, towards:
buraya [bu -ra -ya] to here
şuraya [şu-ra-ya] to there
oraya [o-ra-ya] to over there
nereye? [ne-re-ye?] where to?
English does not come to here or come to there., although in Older English we did use these forms Come hither or Go hence. However Turkish must use the -a suffix to show movement towards the place. Basically Turkish is using hence and hither and even thence and thither which we in English no longer use in daily speech.
Turkish Extended Spatials Plural Forms
The plural forms buralarda, şuralarda, oralarda, nerelerde cause the meaning to be:
1. More vague: buralarda hereabouts, around here
2. More spatial: şuralarda thereabouts, around there,over there
3. More generalized: oralarda thereabouts, over there, around about
3. Any mixture of the three: nerelerde? whereabouts?
The meanings have become more generalized in both space and location.
The meanings based on şuralarda are in the near vicinity whilst those based on oralarda are more distant, maybe in another country.
The Plural Forms are also extended with -dan from.. and -a towards..
buralardan [bu-ra-lar-dan] from hereabouts
şuralardan [şu-ra-lar-dan] from around there
oralardan [o-ra-lar-dan] over around there
nerelerden? [ne-re-ler-den?] whereabouts from?
buralara [bu-ra-lar-a] to around here
şuralara [şu-ra-lar-a] to around there
oralara [o-ra-lar-a] to those parts
nerelere? [ne-re-ler-e?] whereabouts to?
The plural forms are vaguer and wider and are used as in English make these distinctions in place and space.
Buralarda bir güzel restoran var mı? Is there a good restaurant around here?
Buraya gel! Come (to) here!
Orada yeşil araba var. There is a green car over there.
Şurada büyük otel var. There is a big hotel there.
Kredi Bankası nerede? Where is the Kredi Bank?.
Çarşı nerelerde? Whereabouts are the shops?.
Buradan saat sekizde çıkalım Let's leave (from) here at 8 o' clock.
Turkish Particular Locations
Particular Locations right here, right there and just where?
If we need to communicate a more particular place and sense of location then as in English we have to be more precise. This precision in Turkish is achieved by using the suffix -i or -si meaning its. By adding this suffix Turkish makes the place particular:
burası [bu-ra-sı] right here [Lit: its place (exactly) here.]
şurası [şu-ra-sı] right there.
orası [o-ra-sı] right over there.
neresi? [ne-re-si?] just where? [Lit: where exactly?]
The -si suffix is the Possessed part of the Possessive Relationship and sometimes the Possessor is "understood". This expression should really be used as a complete relationship as in: "bankanın burası" or "evin şurası" or "İngilterenin orası" but this is pedantic and ony used for exact locations:
Turkish Exact Locations
For exact locations the Possessive Adjective suffix -(s)ı is added to make the meaning become more exact. For instance: if someone asks you on the telephone:
Neredesin? [ne-re-de-sin?] Where are you?
Then you might answer: Ankara' dayım. [Ankara'-da-y-ım] I'm in Ankara.
However, if they ask you:
Oranın neresinde? [ne-re-si-n-de?] Where (of there) exactly?
Then you might answer: Banyodayım. [banyo-da-y-ım] I am in the bath.
Here is a conversation between Ali and his friend Mehmet to explain the above about general and precise location:
Ali: Neredesin? Where are you?
Mehmet: Üsküdar' dayım. I am in Üsküdar.
Ali: Üsküdar' ın neresinde? Whereabouts (of Uskudar)?
Mehmet: Ahmet Çeşmesi' nin yanındayım. I'm by the Ahmet Fountain.
Another conversation between Mehmet and Ali to show the difference between the nereye? where to? [Lit: to where?] as a general location and the neresine? just where to? [Lit: to THE where?] as an exact location type of usage:
Mehmet: Bu akşam nereye gidiyorsun? Where are you going (to) this evening?
Ali: Merkeze gidiyorum. I'm going to the town center.
Mehmet: Merkezin neresine? Where to (exactly) of the town center?
Ali: Büyük Efes Oteline gidiyorum I'm going to the Grand Efes Hotel.
Turkish Particular Location Examples
How to say: right here, just there.
All these mean exactly right here or right there or just where?
Burası soğuk. It is cold right here.
Burasına gel! Come (right to) here.
Binanın burasından kaçalım! Let's get away from this building (here).
Buradan kaçalim! Let's get out of here!
İzmir? Orası güzel. Izmir? That very place is beautiful.
Çantamı, odamın neresine koydum, acaba? Where exactly did I put my bag in my room I wonder?
Or more general: Çantamı nereye koydum acaba? Where did I put my bag, I wonder?
Kitabı dolabın şurasına koyun.. Put the book just over there in(to) the cupboard.
Or more General: Kitabı şuraya koyun. Put the book just over there.
Tam saat sekizde burada görüşelim. Let's meet right here at dead on 8 o' clock.
burası, şurası, orası can be only used alone in the subject (nominative) condition:
Burası neresi? Where is this (exactly)?
Şurası güzelmiş. Just there is beautiful.
Orası güzel. It is nice over there.
The other cases need a possessor -(n)ın which possesses these burası surası, orası.
Binanın burasına gel! Come right here to the building!
Balkonun şurasında bir kuş vardı. There was a bird right on the balcony..
Partinin orasından ilginç sesler geliyordu. There are interesting sounds coming out of party's place there.