The suffix of place is -re or -ra meaning - place/place of
Earlier we learned of bu - this - and şu or o - that. Putting these words together by suffixing -ra- place of plus the static (locative) suffix -da - in, on, at - then we form the words meaning - here and there etc. These words are used for a general sense of location.
burada - here - [lit: bu-ra-da - this-place-at]
şurada - there - [lit: şu-ra-da - that-place nearer-at or in between-at]
orada - over there - [lit: o-ra-da - that-place yonder-at]
nerede? - where? - [lit: ne-re-de? - what-place-at?]
In conversation you will hear the above words shortened (abraded) to - burda, şurda, orda, nerde?
A little note: There is really no such suffix -deki in Turkish. -deki is actually two suffixes together, -de plus an added -ki.
-de means - on, in, at - while -ki is - that which is
But you will find most grammar books gloss over this construction although it is in constant daily use to make an Adjective of Location. It is for this reason that I began teaching it as a suffix in its own right - and it was far easier for my students to grasp the intention of meaning. Therefore I will treat it as a suffix for Manisa Turkish website. Let us call it a "pseudo" suffix. Sokaktaki araba - The car which is in the street - [Lit: Sokak-ta-ki street-in-which-is car.] - here we can see that -daki makes an Adjective of Location - that which is in.
This pseudo suffix is very important as it is used a lot in daily conversation and reading.
The -deki or -daki - is added to words to produce an adjective to describe the location of an object. This is best shown by example. For instance if we say: The telephone [which is] in my bedroom is broken, then Turkish trying to turn everything into an adjective will say thus: [lit: Bedroom-of-me-which-is-in telephone broken-is.] - Yatak odamdaki telefon bozuktur. - [Yatak oda-m-daki telefon bozuk-tur]. Here odam-daki telefon is used as an adjective to describe just where the telephone is! - ie. Room-my-in-which-is telephone.
This point is a particular difficulty when beginning to learn Turkish as we do not use an adjectival construction. Instead in English we use a Relative Construction - The telephone which is in my bedroom is broken.. It is important to understand this adjectival construction of location, as it is in constant daily use in Turkish. It can also be used as a location in time scale as some of the examples below will show. Note also that the vowel in -ki is invariable - it does not follow Vowel harmony Rules, so the full Suffix of Adjectival Location is either -deki or -daki.
Masadaki kitap - The book (which is) on the table.
Masadaki kitabı bana verin. - Give me the book (which is) on the table.
Kilitteki anahtar. - The key (which is) in the lock.
Kilitteki anahtarı çıkarınız - (Would you) take the key out of the lock. - [Lit: Lock-in-which-is key-the take out!] - [We have used the polite imperative in this example]
Kutudaki kibritler nemlidir. - The matches (which are) in the box are damp.
It can be seen from the above example that the Turkish aspect is different from English and this can only be appreciated by usage and practice, as it is an alien construction for English speakers
Önümüzdeki hafta. - (Ön-ümüz-deki hafta.) - The week in front of us - [Lit: Front-of-us-which-is week.]
Önümüzdeki haftanın havası çok güneşli olacak. - The week ahead's weather will be very sunny.
As already stated this is at first sight a difficult construction and can be assimilated by reading, listening and using whenever possible
If we need to show movement from or movement to a place or places then we must use a different suffix such as -dan - from or -a - to, towards.. in order to modify the meaning:
buradan [bu -ra -dan] - (burdan as spoken) - from here
We also use the same construction in English. If a child strays too near to the fire, then the mother will say: "Get away from there!".
şuradan [şu -ra -dan] - (şurdan as spoken) - from there
oradan [o -ra -dan] - (ordan as spoken) - from over there
nereden? [ne -re -den?] - (nerden? as spoken) - where from?
Word Adding -a - to, towards:
buraya - [bu -ra -ya] - to here
şuraya [şu-ra-ya] - to there
oraya [o-ra-ya] - to over there
nereye? [ne-re-ye?] - where to?
We in English do not say - come to here - or - come to there., although in Older English we did use these forms - Come hither - or - Go hence. However Turkish must use the -a suffix to show movement towards the place. Basically Turkish is using - hence and hither - and even - thence and thither - which we in English no longer use in daily speech. To re-iterate, we used to say - hither and thither - in the old days - this is what Turkish is basically doing.
The plural forms buralarda, şuralarda, oralarda, nerelerde cause the meaning to be:
1. More vague: - buralarda - hereabouts, around here
2. More spatial: - şuralarda - thereabouts, around there,over there
3. More generalized: - oralarda - thereabouts, over there, around about
3. Any mixture of the three: - nerelerde? - whereabouts?
Here we can see then the meanings have become more generalized in both space and location.
We should also remember that the meanings based on şuralarda are in the near vicinity whilst the meanings based on oralarda are more distant (let's say in another country).
The Plural Forms are also extended with -dan - from.. and -a - towards..
buralardan (bu-ra-lar-dan) - from hereabouts
şuralardan (şu-ra-lar-dan) - from around there
oralardan (o-ra-lar-dan) - over around there
nerelerden? (ne-re-ler-den?) - whereabouts from?
buralara (bu-ra-lar-a) - to around here
şuralara (şu-ra-lar-a) - to around there
oralara (o-ra-lar-a) - to those parts
nerelere? (ne-re-ler-e?) - whereabouts to?
As we can see the plural forms are vaguer and wider, but they are used just as we in English make these distinctions in place and space.
Buralarda bir güzel restoran var mı? - Is there a good restaurant around here?
Buraya gel! - Come (to) here!
Orada yeşil araba var. - There is a green car over there.
Şurada büyük otel var. - There is a big hotel there.
Kredi Bankası nerede? - Where is the Kredi Bank?.
Çarşı nerelerde? - Whereabouts are the shops?.
Buradan saat sekizde çıkalım - Let's leave (from) here at 8 o' clock.
Particular Locations - right here, right there and just where?
If we need to communicate a more particular place and sense of location then as in English we have to be more precise. This precision in Turkish is achieved by using the suffix -i or -si meaning - its. By adding this suffix Turkish makes the place particular:
burası (bu-ra-sı) - right here [Lit: its place (exactly) here.]
şurası (şu-ra-sı) - right there.
orası (o-ra-sı) - right over there.
neresi? (ne-re-si?) - just where? [Lit: where exactly?]
Note that the -si suffix is the Possessed part of the Possessive Relationship and that sometimes the Possessor is "understood", we should really be using this expression as a complete relationship as in: "bankanın burası" or "evin şurası" or "İngilterenin orası", but this is a bit pedantic. (See note below)
As Stated above for exact locations the Possessive Adjective suffix -(s)ı is added to make the meaning become more exact. For instance if someone asks you on the telephone:
Neredesin? (ne-re-de-sin?) - Where are you?
Then you might answer: Ankara' dayım - (Ankara'-da-y-ım) - I 'm in Ankara
However, if they ask you:
Oranın neresinde? (ne-re-si-n-de?) - Where (of there) exactly?
Then you might answer: banyodayım (banyo-da-y-ım) - I am in the bath
Here is a little conversation between Ali and his friend Mehmet to explain the above about general and precise location.
Ali: Neredesin? - (or Nerdesin? abraded in conversation) - Where are you?
Mehmet: Üsküdar' dayım - I am in Üsküdar
Ali: Üsküdar' ın neresinde? - Whereabouts (of Uskudar)?
Mehmet: Ahmet Çeşmesi' nin yanındayım. - I'm by the Ahmet Fountain.
The call sign of Ankara Official Radio Station is burası Ankara - This place (exactly) is Ankara. It is something like British Official Radio whose call sign is "London Calling"
Some Examples: right here, just there. All these mean exactly - right here or right there or just where?
Burası soğuk. - It is cold right here
Burasına gel! - Come (right to) here
Binanın burasından kaçalım! - Let's get away from (of) this building.
In the last two examples it can be said as a descriptive way when you have a map or something in your hand and show the person some district on the map and tell him to come to the exact place of the district.
In normal conversation we can say:
Buradan kaçalim! - Let's get out of here..!
İzmir? - Orası güzel. - Izmir? - That very place is beautiful
Çantamı, odamın neresine koydum, acaba? - Where exactly did I put my bag in my room I wonder?
Or more General: Çantamı nereye koydum acaba? - Where did I put my bag, I wonder?
Kitabı dolabın şurasına koyun. - Put the book just over there in(to) the cupboard.
Or more General: Kitabı şuraya koyun - Put the book just over there.
Tam saat sekizde burada görüşelim. - Let's meet right here at dead on 8 o' clock
As you see Burası, Şurası, Orası - can be only used alone in nominative case;
Burası neresi? - where is this (exactly)?
Şurası güzelmiş. - Just there is beautiful.
Orası güzel. - It is nice over there.
In other cases we need an possessor which possesses these - burası surası, orası.
Binanın burasına gel! - Come right here to the building!
Balkonun şurasında bir kuş vardı. - There was a bird right on the balcony.
Ormanın orasından ilginç sesler geliyordu. - There are interesting sounds coming out of forest ('s place.)
Here is a snippet of conversation between Mehmet and Ali to show the difference between the nereye? - where to? [Lit: to where?] as a general location and the neresine? - just where to? [Lit: to THE where?] as an exact location type of usage.
Mehmet: - Bu akşam nereye gidiyorsun? - Where are you going (to) this evening?
Ali: - Merkeze gidiyorum. - I'm going to the town center.
Mehmet: - Merkezin neresine? - Where to (exactly) of the town center?
Ali: - Büyük Efes Oteline gidiyorum - I'm going to the Grand Efes Hotel.