Turkish makes use of three buffer letters -n- -y- -s-
This is to keep vowels apart when adding suffixes.
The buffer letter -S-
Only used with the third person suffix -ı -i -u -ü he, she, it
It becomes -si -sı -sü -su when added to a root word which ends in a vowel.
It is not used in any other instance.
Turkish Buffer Letter -S-
|kedi||cat||kedisi||his / her cat|
|şemsiye||umbrella||şemsiyesi ||his / her umbrella|
|kapı||door||kapısı ||his / her / its door|
|palto||overcoat||paltosu ||his /her overcoat|
|ütü||flatiron||ütüsü ||his /her iron|
|araba||car||arabası ||his / her car|
|kuzu||lamb||kuzusu ||his / her lamb|
Turkish buffer letter -Y-
Buffer letter -Y- is only used with simple nouns
Buffer -Y is used ON PLAIN SIMPLE UNSUFFIXED NOUNS with the direct object Condition suffix -i the
It becomes -yi -yı -yu -yü when added to a root word which ends in a vowel.
kedi cat → kediyi
banka bank → bankayı
Buffer -Y is used ON PLAIN SIMPLE UNSUFFIXED NOUNS with the the Movement Toward Condition
[dative] -a, -e to, towards
It becomes -ya -ye when added to a root word which ends in a vowel.
kedi cat → kediye
to the cat
banka bank → bankaya
to the bank
baba father → babaya
to the father
The buffer letter -N- with Ownership Condition
Buffer letter -N- is always used for the Ownership condition
[genitive] -in -ın -ün -un
It becomes -nin -nın -nün -nun for "owners" that end in a vowel.
Bare nouns in the ownership condition do not use -Y- as a buffer letter.
Turkish Buffer letter -N- Ownership Condition
|Bare Noun||Extended Noun|
|köprünün||of the brıdge, the brıdge's||köprüsünün||of his brıdge, his brıdge's|
|masanın||of the table, the table's||masalarının||of their table, their table's|
|pencerenin||of the window, the window's||penceresinin||of its window, its window's|
|yolcunun||of the traveller, the traveller's||yolcularının||of theır traveller, the traveller's|
Buffer letter -N- is used with nouns that have already been suffixed.
This shift of buffer letter y to n enables the listener to discern that the word is already agglutinated (extended) by previous suffixes.
Buffer letter -N is used on ALREADY SUFFIXED NOUNS
kedisi his/her cat → kedisini
[3rd person possessed object]
bankası his/her bank → bankasını
[3rd person possessed object]
kedileri their cat →kedilerine
to their cat
[3rd person plural possessed motion toward]
The Buffer Letter -N- with -da/-de and -dan/-den
The suffixes -de and -dan are added directly to basic nouns
kedi cat → kedide
on the cat
from the cat
kapı door → kapıda
on / at the door
from the door
They become -nda/-nde and -ndan/-nden when added to ALREADY SUFFIXED nouns.
This is to separate them from the extended word:
kedisi his/her cat → kedisinde
on his/her cat
from his/her cat
kapısı his/her door → kapısında
on/at his/her door
from his/her door
Buffer Letter -n used with Suffixes of Location -nde -nda and Movement -nden -ndan
‑de and ‑den require a buffer ‑n‑ when added to an extended word.
|Simple Noun||Extended Noun|
|bankadan||from the bank||bankasından||from his bank|
|bankada||in/at the bank||bankasında||in/at his bank|
|bankalardan||from the banks||bankalarından||from their bank(s)|
|evden||from the house/from home||evinden||from his house/home|
|evlerde||in the houses||evlerinde||in their houses|