Turkish makes use of three buffer letters -n- -y- -s- to keep vowels apart when adding suffixes. There are rules on the choice of these suffixes:
The letter Y is a consonant in the Turkish alphabet.
The buffer letter -S-
Only used with the third person suffix he, she, it the form -si -sı -sü -su when added to a root word which ends in a vowel.
It is not used in any other instance.
|Turkish Buffer Letter -S-|
|Simple Noun||Suffixed Noun||Meaning|
|kedi||cat||kedisi [kedi-si]||his/her cat|
|şemsiye||umbrella||şemsiyesi [şemsiye-si]||his/her umbrella|
|kapı||door||kapısı [kapı-sı]||his/her/its door|
|palto||overcoat||paltosu [palto-su]||his overcoat|
|ütü||flatiron||ütüsü [ütü-sü]||his/her iron|
|araba||car||arabası [araba-sı]||his/her car|
|kuzu||lamb||kuzusu [kuzu-su]||his/her lamb|
Turkish buffer letter -Y-
Buffer letter -Y- is only used with simple nouns which are not suffixed.
This -Y is used ON PLAIN SIMPLE UNSUFFIXED NOUNS with the direct object Condition suffix -i the to become -yi -yı -yu -yü when added to a root word which ends in a vowel.
kedi cat becomes kediyi the cat (object)
banka bank becomes bankayı the bank (object)
This -Y is used ON PLAIN SIMPLE UNSUFFIXED NOUNS with the the Movement Toward Condition [dative] -a, -e to, towards to become -ya -ye when added to a root word which ends in a vowel.
kedi cat becomes kediye [kedi-y-e] to the cat
banka bank becomes bankaya [banka-y-a] to the bank
baba father becomes babaya [baba-y-a] to the father
The buffer letter -N- with Ownership Condition
Buffer letter -N- is always used for the Ownership condition [genitive] -in -ın -ün -un for owners tht end in a vowel to become -nin -nın -nün -nun
Bare nouns in the ownership condition do not use -Y- as a buffer letter.
|Turkish Buffer letter -N- Ownership Condition|
|Bare Noun||Extended Noun|
|of the brıdge, the brıdge's||köprüsünün|
|of his brıdge, his brıdge's|
|of the table, the table's||masalarının|
|of their table, their table's|
|of the window, the window's||penceresinin|
|of its window, its window's|
|of the traveller, the traveller's||yolcularının|
|of theır traveller, theır traveller's|
Buffer letter -N- is used with nouns that have already been suffixed.
This shift of buffer letter y to n enables the listener to discern that the word is already agglutinated (extended) by previous suffixes.
Buffer letter -N is used on ALREADY SUFFIXED NOUNS
bankası his/her bank becomes bankasını [banka-sı-nı] his/her bank [3rd person possessedobject]
kedileri their cat becomes kedilerine [kedi-leri-ne] to their cat [3rd person plural possessed motion toward]
The Buffer Letter -N- with -da/-de and -dan/-den
The suffixes -de and -dan are added directly to basic nouns
kedi cat becomes kedide [kedi-de] on the cat
kediden [kediden] from the cat
kapı door becomes kapıda [kapı-da] on/at the door
kapıdan [kapıdan] from the door
They become -nda/-nde and -ndan/-nden when added to ALREADY SUFFIXED nouns to separate them from the extended word:
kedisi his/her cat becomes kedisinde [kedi-si-nde] on his/her cat
kedisinden [kedi-si-n-den] from his/her cat
kapısı his/her door becomes kapısında [kapı-sı-nda] on/at his/her door
kapısından [kapı-sı-n-dan] from his/her door
|‑de and ‑den require a buffer ‑n‑ when added to an extended word.|
|Simple Noun||Extended Noun|
|from the bank||bankasından|
|from his bank|
|in/at the bank||bankasında|
|in/at his bank|
|from the banks||bankalarından|
|from their bank(s)|
|from the house/from home||evinden|
|from his house/home|
|in the houses||evlerinde|
|in their houses|