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Turkish Clauses of Time

How to say when in Turkish

There are many ways of saying when in English and of course the same applies in Turkish.
When I've painted the house, I am going on holiday.
As soon as I have painted the house, I am going on holiday.
After I have painted the house I am going on holiday.
On the house being painted, I am going on holiday.

We have all these choices in English to fine tune the meaning, and so does The Turkish Language. In some cases the choice is easy in others it may alter the meaning slightly so the choice of our expression always relies on the circumstance appertaining at the time. As usual it is backwards in Turkish in order to have the main verb last in the sentence:

English Construction: I shall go to the cafe, when the job is finished.
Turkish Construction: When the job is finished, I shall to the cafe.
İş bitince, lokantaya gideceğim
[LIT: Work on-finishing, to-the-cafe I-will-go.]

When I got up, it was raining hard.
Yataktan kalktığım zaman çok yağmur yağıyordu.
[LIT: From-bed the-that-I-got-up time much rain was-raining.]

When I was playing the piano, they were dancing.
Ben, piyano çalarken onlar dans ediyorlardı.
[LIT: I, the piano while-playing they-were-dancing.]

I was very tired when I returned from the party.
Partiden döndüğümde çok yorgundum/yorgun idim.
[LIT: From-the-party at-my-returning very tired I-was.]

My sister found the money when she was sweeping the carpet.
Kız kardeşim halıyı süpürürken parayı buldu.
[LIT:My sister the-carpet while-sweeping the-money found.]

When the rain stopped we returned to our houses.
Yağmur durunca evlerimize döndük
[LIT: The rain on-stopping to-our-house we returned.]

Common Turkish Time Clauses

before önce or -meden/-madan önce

English Construction: I went out to play before I had dinner.
Turkish Construction:Before I had dinner, I went out to play.
Akşam yemeğini yemeden önce dışarıya oynamaya çıktım.
LIT: The evening meal from-the-eating before to-the-out to-the playing exited-I.]

The sun had set in the west before we reached our destination.
Biz hedefimize varmadan önce güneş batıdan batmıştı.

We must go home before it gets dark.
Hava kararmadan önce eve gitmeliyiz.

We shall have had lunch by the time that the train gets to London.
Tren Londraya varmadan önce öğlen yemeğimizi yİyecektik.

My small brother had eaten all the pie before I got back.
Ben dönmeden önce küçük erkek kardeşim bütün böreği yemişti.

I will finish everything by the time my father comes home.
Babam eve gelmeden önce her şeyi bitireceğim.

The party will be over by the time we get there.
Biz oraya varmadan önce parti sona erecek.

By the time we got there, the meeting had already started.
Oraya varmadan önce toplantı başlamıştı bile.

If there is no verb in the sentence: -dan/-den/-ten/-tan önce or -dan/-den/-ten/-tan evvel {arb.] is used
Before May. Mayıstan önce, Mayistan evvel.
Before April. Nisandan önce.
Before 5 o'clock. Saat beşten önce.
Before 2 o'clock. Saat ikiden önce./Saat ikiden evvel.

because of -dan dolayı or yüzünden

Vowel harmonised + consonant mutated suffixes: -dan/-den/-tan/-ten dolayı

Because of what Mehmet has done we can never succeed.
Mehmet'in yaptığından dolayı asla başaramayız.
[LIT: Mehhmet's the-that-did-he-from thing reason-its ever to not succeeed-are-able we.]

Because of what Mehmet has done we can never succeed.
Mehmet'in yaptığı şey yüzünden asla başaramayız.

Because of what Mehmet has done we will never be able to succeed.
Mehmet'in yaptığı şey yüzünden asla başaramayacağız.

after, afterwards sonra or -dikten sonra

Vowel harmonised + consonant mutated suffixes: dikten/-tikten -dıktan/-tıktan -dükten/-tükten -duktan/-tuktan

English Construction: I turned the lights off after my sister went to bed. English Construction
Turkish Construction: After my sister went to bed, I turned off the lights. Turkish Construction
Kız kardeşim yattıktan sonra ışıkları söndürdüm. [Causative Verb Form]
- LIT: My sister the-that-lied-down-from after the-lights extinguished-made-I. ]

After the plane took off, we ate our lunch.
Uçak havalandıktan sonra öğle yemeğimizi yedik.

I am going to ask the teacher a question after the class is over.
Ders bittikten sonra öğretmene bir soru soracağım.

I will write to you after I leave Ankara.
Ankara'dan ayrıldıktan sonra sana mektup yazacağım.

They went to the theater after they had finished their work.
İşlerini bitirdikten sonra tiyatroya gittiler.

We went to Italy after the war broke out.
Savaş çıktıktan sonra İtalya'ya gittik.

as -dığında or -ınca or iken

Vowel harmonised + consonant mutated suffixes: -dığında-/diğinde -duğunda-/düğünde -tığında-/tiğinde -tuğunda-/tüğünde

-(y)ınca/-(y)ınce/-(y)unca/-(y)ünce = on doing.. is vowel harmoized and adds buffer letter -y- when added to vowels:
gidince on going, ben bankaya gidince = when I go to the bank/on going to he bank I…
o fıkrayı kimse gülmüyünce.. when nobody laughs at that joke/on not laughing at

English Construction: Mehmet went to bed as the clock struck ten.
Turkish Construction: As the clock struck ten, Mehmet went to bed.
Saat onu vurunca Mehmet yattı.
[LIT: Hour the-ten on-striking Mehmet down-lied-she.]

As we were standing on top of the bridge, we saw a boat coming.
Köprünün üstünde ayakta dururken gelen bir gemi gördük.
[LIT: The bridge's top-on foot-on standing-while, which-comes a boat saw-we.]

As we went out of the house, we saw a man running down the stairs..
Evden dışarıya çıkınca merdivenlerden aşağı koşan bir adam gördük.
[LIT: House-from the-out-to on-exiting, the stairs-from downwards who-runs a man saw-we.]

As the snow was falling, the poor man was going home.
Kar yağarken zavallı adam evine gidiyordu.
[LIT: Snow raining-while poor the man house-his to going-was-he.]

As the boy was walking straight towards the seashore, he met a fisherman.
Çocuk deniz kıyısına doğru yürürken bir balıkçıya rastladı.
[LIT: The-child sea edge-its-to straight walking-while a fisherman-to came-across-he.]

Now that, When that -diği zaman

Vowel harmonised + consonant mutated suffixes: -dığı-/diği -duğu-/düğü -tığı-/tiği -tuğu-/tüğü

Now (that) you mention it, of course I do remember.
Ondan bahsettiğiniz zaman, elbet hatırlıyorum.

just as tam or iken

English Construction: The phone rang just as I was leaving the house.
Turkish Construction: Just as I was leaving the house, the phone rang.
Ben, tam evden ayrılırken telefon çaldı.
[LIT: I, just (completely) house-from leaving-while, the-telephone rang-it.]

Mehmet opened the door just as I began to speak about him..
Tam onun hakkında konuşmaya başladığım zaman Mehmet kapıyı açtı.

Just as I was leaving home, it started to rain.
Ben, tam evden ayrılırken yağmur yağmaya başladı.

Just as the teacher was cleaning the board, the inspector entered the class.
Tam öğretmen tahtayı silerken müfettiş sınıfa girdi.

as soon as …ir …mez

The simple timless tense posititve -r and negative -maz/-mez signs are used in apposition.

English Construction: We shall have tea as soon as my father comes home.
Turkish Construction: As soon as my father comes home we shall have tea.
Babam eve gelir gelmez çay içeceğiz.

They turned on the lights as soon as the film ended.
Film biter bitmez ışıkları açtılar.

We will come to see you as soon as the holidays start.
Tatil başlar başlamaz sizi görmeye geleceğiz.

As soon as Ayşe had finished her homework, she went out to play.
Ayşe ev ödevini bitirir bitirmez dışarıya oynamaya çıktı.

We shall go as soon as my father is ready.
Babam hazır olur olmaz gideceğiz.

As soon as you buy this novel, I will borrow it from you..
Sen bu romanı satın alır almaz onu senden ödünç alacağım.

while, during iken or esnasında

English Construction: We stayed at a hotel while we were in Istanbul.
Turkish Construction: While we were in Paris, we stayed at a hotel.
Biz İstanbul 'da iken bir otelde kaldık.

While the children were playing in the garden it started to rain.
Çocuklar bahçede oynarken yağmur yağmaya başladı.

While you are having your bath, I will listen to the radio.
Sen banyo yaparken ben radyo dinleyeceğim.

I will accompany the lady while she is singing.
Bayan şarkı söylerken ona eşlik edeceğim.

I read the book while I was in hospital.
Kitabı hastanede iken okudum.

The footballer had a heart attack during the match
Futbolcu maç esnasında kalp krizi geçirdi.

no sooner than -masıyla/-mesiyle bir oldu

English Construction: The dance had no sooner started than the lights went out.
Turkish Construction: No sooner had the dance started then the lights went out.
Dansın başlamasıyla ışıkların sönmesi bir oldu.

No sooner had I returned from Ankara than l left for Paris.
Ankara'dan geri dönmemle Paris'e hareket etmem bir oldu.

He had no sooner got into bed than the window was opened.
Yatağa girmesiyle pencerenin açılması bir oldu.

Ali no sooner entered the room than the telephone rang again.
Ali'nın odaya girmesi ile telefonun tekrar çalması bir oldu.

Hasan had no sooner put down the receiver than the telephone rang again.
Hasan'ın ahizeyi yerine koyması ile telefonun tekrar çalması bir oldu.

No sooner did I see him, than I recognized him.
Onu görmemle tanımam bir oldu.

No sooner had the stranger opened the gate than the dog barked at him.
Yabancının bahçe kapısını açmasıyla köpeğin ona havlaması bir oldu.

whenever her ne zaman

her ne zaman {LIT: all the which time]

English Construction: Whenever I started to speak English, my friend used to laugh.
Turkish Construction: My friend used to laugh whenever I started to speak English.
Her ne zaman İngilizce konuşmaya başlasam arkadaşım gülerdi.

You may visit us whenever you come to Istanbul..
Her ne zaman İstanbul'a gelirsen bizi ziyaret edebilirsin.

Whenever I sing a song, my sister goes out of the room right away.
Her ne zaman şarkı söylesem kız kardeşim derhal odadan dışarı çıkar.

Whenever we go to Bursa, we climb up the mountain.
Her ne zaman Bursa'ya gitsek dağa tırmanırız.

I can't sleep whenever I drink too much coffee.
Her ne zaman çok kahve içsem uyuyamam.

every time that her (zaman)

Every time I meet her, she wants me to take her to the cinema.
Ona her rastlayışımda kendisini sinemaya götürmemi ister.

Every time we go to the circus, our children buy Ice cream.
Sirke her gidişimizde çocuklarımız dondurma Satın alırlar.