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Turkish Auxiliary Verbs

There are two main auxiliary verbs in Turkish:
(1) etmek to do, to make, to perform. This auxiliary is used to make Active Tenses.
Babamı mutlu ettim I made my father happy.
Dört üç daha yedi eder. Four plus three makes seven
Toplam sekiz dolar ediyor. The total amounts to 8 dollars

(2) olmak to be, to become, to happen, to occur. This auxiliary is used to make Passive Tenses.
Seni görünce mutlu oldum. I became happy on seeing you.

etmek to do/to perform

etmek is not usually used alone as a verb.

etmek is used with many Arabic and Persian words to form verbs where none exist in modern Turkish:
teşekkür (arabic) a thanking
teşekkür etmek to thank somebody teşekkür ederim (I) thank you
Many Arabic words do not follow the rules of vowel harmony within themselves but any Turkish suffixes added will always be governed by the final vowel in the word.
Sometimes in Turkish there are two words in general use for the same meaning, one Arabic using etmek to form its verb, whilst the Turkish rooted word will follow normal rules of conjugation.
tamir etmek to repair [arab] equates to onarmak to repair [turk]

Verbs used with auxiliary etmek
etmek (eder - simple tense)to do/perfome/make/act (as an auxiliary)
acele etmekto hurry
affetmekto pardon
akıl etmekto think of/contrive
alay etmekto make fun of
alış veriş etmekto shop
arzu etmekto want/desire
bahane etmekto pretend/make excuse
bahse girmekto bet/wager
belli etmekto reveal/show
cesaret etmekto dare to
davet etmekto invite
devam etmekto continue
endişe etmekto worry/be anxious
farketmekto notice/realize
halletmekto solve/settle up
hareket etmekto move off/pull out (car)
hasretmek (-e)to confine (to)/limit
hissetmekto feel/sense
hitap etmekto make a speech
ısrar etmekto insist/persist
icabetmekto comply/acccept as
icap etmekto be necessary
idare etmekto manage/direct/administer
ihmal etmekto neglect
iki lâf etmekto chat about nothing
ikna etmekto persuade/convince
ikram etmekto offer hospitality
intibak etmekto adapt (to)
itham etmekto accuse
itiraz etmekto object/disapprove
istirahat etmekto relax
iyi etmekto make good
izah etmekto explain
kabul etmekto approve/settle for
kastetmekto imply/mean
kavga etmekto quarrel/fall out with
kaybetmekto lose
laf/lâf etmekto gossip/chat
merak etmekto wonder
mutlu etmekto make sb. happy
münakaşa etmekto quarrrel/row
müracaat etmekto appeal/re-apply
müsaade etmekto permit /allow
nakletmekto transport/transfer
nankörlük etmekto show ingratitude
nefret etmek (-dan)to hate
perişan etmekto dismay sb/to bungle so.
rahat etmekto make comfortable
rahatsız etmekto disturb/upset
rica etmekto request
sabretmekto be patient
seyretmekto watch
söz etmekto promise
şikâyet etmekto complain
tahammül etmekto put up with/endure
tahmin etmekto guess/surmise
tarif etmekto describe/define
tasnif etmekto classify
tebrik etmekto congratulate
teklif etmekto propose/suggest
telefon etmekto call on the telephone
tembih etmekto reccommend
tenkit etmekto criticise
terketmekto abandon/leave
tereddüt etmekto hesitate
teselli etmekto console
teşekkür etmekto thenk
vefatetmekto pass away (die)
yaramazlık etmekto be naughty/act up
yardım etmek (-a)to help
yok etmekto get rid of
yolcu etmekto see a traveller off
zahmet etmekto inconvenience sb.
zannetmekto suppose

etmek is directly joined to single syllable word stems otherwise it is written separately.
etmek being a verb in its own right does undergo vowel harmony when suffixed to other words.

etmek is also used to make verbs from nouns of foreign import into Turkish:
izole etmek to isolate, to insulate Fişi izole ettim. I isolated the plug..
dans etmek to dance
telefon etmek to telephone
park etmek to park

Single Syllable Verb Roots with etmek

If verbs are formed with a single syllable root then etmek is affixed directly to that root, which if it ends in a consonant will generally double that consonant.
af pardon [Arabic]
This being an arabic root takes a doubled "-ff" when adding a verb form
affetmek to beg pardon affedersiniz! Pardon!

ret a refusal [Arabic]
This being an arabic root takes a doubled "-dd" when adding a verb form
reddetmek to refuse reddederim! I refuse!

etmek as a verb of completion

Since etmek is an auxiliary, it is used like the auxiliary verbs in English:
English: Are you coming to the party tonight? Yes I am.
Turkish: Bu aksamki partiye geliyor musun? Evet geliyorum.
Here, the English short answer includes only I am without the verb coming. Turkish, however, has to include the geliyorum part since it does not include an auxiliary like the to be verb form of English.

English: Did you accept this after all? Yes I did.
Turkish: Herşeye rağmen kabul ettin mi onu? Evet ettim.
The short answer in English is I did without the verb accept just like the short answer in Turkish is ettim without kabul. So when etmek is used, it is used like an auxiliary.

Turkish Transitive Verbs formed with etmek

Onun için Mehmet bana ayıp etti. Because of it/that Mehmet shamed me.
Mektubu teslim ettim. I delivered the letter.
Koliyi teslim ettirdiniz. you had the the parcel delivered.
Onu tamir edebilsek. If we can repair it/that.
Onu tamir edemem. I can't repair it/that.
Onu kontrol ettiler. They checked it/that.
Onu kontrol edebilir misiniz? Would you check it/that?
Onu reddedeceğiz. We shall refuse it/that.
Onu reddedelim. Let's refuse it/that.
Ahmet, onu takdir etti. Ahmet appreciated it/that.
Ali, onu takdir edememiş. Ali couldn't have appreciated it/that

The passive can be formed with edilmek, the passive of etmek.
Mektup teslim edildi. The letter has been delivered.
Yarın arabanız tamir edilecek. Your car will be repaired tomorrow.
O kontrol edildi. It has been checked.
Onu kontrol edilebilcek mi? Can it be repaired?
Ali, takdir edilecek. Ali will be appreciated.

olmak to be/become

This verb meaning to be/to become is also used as an auxiliary with foreign loan words. It is also attached directly to single syllable roots or written separately when used with roots of more that one syllable. It does not change its own vowels as it is a verb in its own right. One of its most important auxiliary functions is its use as the future tense andpotential mood of the verb to be

Hazırım I am ready.
Hazır olacağım. I shall be ready.

Zenginsiniz. You are rich.
Zengin olsaydınız. If you had been rich.

O yoksul. he is poor.
O yoksul olabilir. He may be poor.

The past of olmak gives the sense of "being in a state of"
Pişman oldum. I regret/I was sorry.
Memnun oldum. I'm pleased.

Other Turkish Auxiliary Verbs

yapmak to do as an action
gelmek to come
kalmak to remain/stay
bulunmak to be found/to be [Passive of bulmak]
eylemek to carry out [equates with etmek but not common.] eylemek can be used as a substitute for etmek and serves the same purpose. It is usually restricted to the written word and is seldom used in conversation.
demek to say
dilemek to wish
söylemek to speak
durmak to stop
vermek to give [used as an Accelerative Auxiliary thus speeding the action of the verb]
Çarşıyaya koşuver! Run quickly to the shops!
yazmak to write [but means "almost to.." when used as an auxiliary verb]
Düşüyazdım! I almost fell down!

Turkish Continuative Verbs

  • -akalmak "continue, keep on doing"
  • -adurmak "continue, keep on doing:
  • -ayazmak "almost to"
  • -ivermek "to act hurriedly, urgently"

Only the first vowel follows the vowel harmony rules. Hence "-ekalmak, -edurmak, -eyazmak, -ıvermek, -uvermek, -üvermek etc". As these are verbs in their own right they retain their spelling. This is similar to the Potential Verb Suffix "-abilmek/-ebilmek". .

kalmak and durmak are used to form a continuing action of the main verb giving the sense to keep on doing or to remain in a condition of.
To form the continuative verb the infinitive of kalmak or durmak is added directly to the subjunctive root of the main verb. The subjunctive root is formed by suffixing -e or -a to the basic verb stem yüzmek to swim becomes yüze- subjunctive stem.

Examples of the direct addition of kalmak to remain:
yüzekalmak to keep on swimming Yüzekaldı. He kept on swimming.
alakalmak to keep on taking Alakalacağım. I will keep on taking.
durakalmak to keep on stopping Durakalıyorsun. You're keeping on stopping.
bekleyedurmak to keep on waiting Bekleyedurabilecek misiniz? Will you be able to keep on waiting?
uyuyakalmak to oversleep Uyuyakaldım! I overlept.
kalakalmak to stand aghast, to be astounded Kalakaldım! I was astounded
donakalmak to petrify Donakaldım! I was petrified!, I was scared stiff!

Turkish Accelerative Verb

The subjunctive mood sign -(y)a/-(y)e is added to the basic verb stem:: However vermek the the -a/-e subjunctive ending often abrades to -i -ı -ü -u according to vowel harmony rules. For instance koşa [the subjunctive root of koşmak to run] follows vowel harmony and abrades to koşuvermek

When adding the accelerative vermek to a verb then the vowel of the subjunctive ending -e narrows to -i or thus: (güle becomes gülüverin and kese becomes kesiverin), while that of the subjunctive ending -a narrows to or -u thus: (baka becomes bakıverin and tuta becomes tutuverin)

The verb vermek to give gives a sense of urgency and speed of action to the main verb. It loses its meaning to give.
The direct addition of vermek means to "get a move on…"
koşmak to run koşuvermek to hurry up and run
yazmak to write yazıvermek to scribble/scrawl
Koşuverin! Hurry up and run! [Imperative]
İçkisini içiverdi. He gulped his drink down.
Gelivereceğim! I'll dash along and come!