The famous thirteen irregular single syllable verbs in the Simple Present. Twelve of them end their root in -l or -r.
The single exception which root ends in -n (of these famous 13 exceptions) is - sanmak - which has the form - sanır - to suppose
Many of these verbs are in common daily use, and should be committed to memory.
Regular verbs use the regular tense sign -ar - as an example - The Wide Tense Root of the Regular verb atmak - to throw - becomes - atar - as in - at-ar-ım - I throw
|almak||alır||to take/get||aldırmak||to make take|
|bulmak||bulur||to find||buldurmak||to make find|
|durmak||durur||to stop/to halt||durdurmak||to make stop|
|kalmak||kalır||to remain/to stay||kaldırmak||to take away/to lift|
|olmak||olur||to be/to become||oldurmak||to make become|
|sanmak||sanır||to suppose||(lacking)||(no meaning)|
|varmak||varır||to arrive||vardırmak||to make arrive|
|vurmak||vurur||to strike/to hit||vurdurmak||to make strike|
Regular verbs use the regular tense sign -er - as an example - The Wide Tense Root of geçmek - to pass - becomes - geçer - as in - geç-er-im - I pass
|bilmek||bilir||to know how to||bildirmek||to make know|
|gelmek||gelir||to come||geldirmek||to make come|
|görmek||görür||to see||göstermek||to show|
|ölmek||ölür||to die||öldürmek||to kill, to murder|
|vermek||verir||to give||verdirmek||to make give|
Note that one of the duties that the Causative Verb form carries out is to make intransitive verbs (verbs that do not take an object) into a transitive verb (verbs that do take an object).
The verb - durmak - to stop/to halt - is such a word:
Araba caddede durdu - The car stopped in the street. - (No object in this sentence - it is intransitive)
Mehmet, arabayı caddede durdurdu - Mehmet stopped the car in the street. - (The object in this sentence is arabyı - the car - it is a transitive sentence)
The translation of the Causative is literal here. We have to consider that in translation we may use a different verb in English. If we look at the first example, the Causative of - to know - has been literally translated as - "to make know, to cause to know" - of course we may translate this verb into English as - to notify, to publish, etc.. We must always bear this in mind when translating Causative Verbs from Turkish into English.