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Turkish Language - The Simple Present Tense - Positive

The Simple Present Tense is also known as the Aorist (timeless) Tense in some grammar books.
It is known as the Geniş Zaman  Wide Tense  in Turkish grammar. It does not specify a time of the present, past or future. It is considered as a gentle tense and is used as a polite imperative or request. The three uses of the Simple Present are as follows:

(1)Turkish Habitual Action

This tense is used where verbs are required to signify a timeless situation in meaning:
Her gun denizde yüzerim. I swim in the sea every day.
Ayşe hanım dondurmayı cok sever. Miss Ayshe likes ice cream a lot.
Her gece eve dönerim. I come back home every night.
Her gün düzenli olarak traş olur. He shaves regularly each day.
Genelikle et yeriz. Generally we eat meat.
Her hafta sonunda futbol oynarlar. They play football every weekend.
In the sentences above there is no indication of future, past or present time. The tense then is used to denote action that is habitual or ongoing.

(2) Turkish Consent or Willingness

The tense also shows consent or willingness.
Kapıyı açar mısınız? Would you open the door please? [a polite request.]
Buna bakar mısınız? Would you look at this please [a polite command.]
Evet, onu yaparım. Yes, I will do the job [a willing consent.]
İki gecelik bir oda tutarız We will take a room for two nights.
In Turkish would you..? and please.. are not translated as it is inherent within the tense itself. This tense is a polite tense.

Turkish Polite Command

Bakar mısınız? Would you look, please?
This is the polite way to get attention of a waiter or any person. It is similar to the Welsh Look you? in that it is not rude.

Turkish Polite Request

Bir çay rica ederim A tea, please [Lit: I request a tea.]
Pencereyi kapatır mısınız? Would you close the window, please?
This is the polite way of asking questions or giving minor orders to strangers.

TurkishPolite Consent

Ben onu yaparım I'll do it.
This is a nice way of accepting the responsibility of something.

(3)Turkish Untimed Future

The Simple Present is also used for future events which are not timed.
Saatin altında seni beklerim. I'll be waiting under the clock for you.
Parkın yanındaki bankayı tabii ki bulursunuz. You'll find the bank all right, next to the Park.
Yarın ofiste buluşuruz. We'll see each other in the office tomorrow.

Turkish Simple Tense Positive Formation

For all verbs ending in a vowel the tense sign is -r-. The Personal suffixes are added to the tense sign to complete the verb in number.

Verb Stems which end in a Vowel
the Tense sign -r is added after dropping -mak or -mek
demekto say, meananlamakto understand
derimI sayanlarımI understand
dersinyou sayanlarsınyou understand
derhe saysanlarhe understands
derizwe sayanlarızwe understand
dersinizyou sayanlarsınızyou understand
derlerthey sayanlarlarthey understand

Some Examples the tense sign is -r
demek der to say
Dünya yuvarlaktır derler. They say the world is round.
yemek yer to eat
Her gün ekmek yeriz. We eat bread every day.
beklemek bekler to wait
Her gün köşede beklersiniz, değil mi? Every day you wait at the corner , don't you?
söylemek söyler to speak
Her zaman "hayır'ı" derler. They say (the) "No" every time.

Turkish Simple Tense Regular Single Syllable Verb Formation

For verbs of one syllable which end in a consonant the positive tense sign is -ar or -er. There are some exceptions to this general rule. This tense is the only one which shows some irregularity in its formation.
The regular tense sign is: -ar, atmak to throw becomes atar as in at-ar-ım I throw
and -er, geçmek to pass becomes geçer as in geç-er-im I pass

Single Syllable Verbs ending in a Consonant.
-ar or -er is added after dropping -mak or -mek
yapmakto do, to makekesmekto cut
yaparımI dokeserimI cut
yaparsınyou dokesersinyou cut
yaparhe doeskeserhe cuts
yaparızwe dokeserizwe cut
yaparsınızyou dokesersinizyou cut
yaparlarthey dokeserlerthey cut

Turkish Single Syllable Irregular Verbs

There are thirteen irregular single syllable verbs in the Simple Present which take the tense sign as -ir -ır -ür -ur.
Twelve of them end their root in -l or -r.
The single exception which root ends in -n is sanmak which has the form sanır to suppose
Many of these verbs are in common daily use and should be committed to memory.

Exceptions to Turkish Single Syllable Verbs
These 13 verbs add -ir -ır -ur -ür.
almakto takealırımI take
bilmekto knowbilirhe knows
bulmakto findbulurhe finds
durmakto stop, haltdururuzwe stop
gelmekto comegelirsinizyou come
görmekto seegörürlerthey see
kalmakto staykalırımI stay
olmakto becomeolursunyou become
ölmekto dieölürit dies
sanmakto supposesanırızwe suppose
vermekto giveverirsinizyou give
varmakto arrivevarırlarthey arrive
vurmakto hitvururumI hit

Turkish Multi Syllable Verbs - Simple Tense

For verbs consisting of more than one syllable the tense sign is -ir -ır -ür -ur according to Vowel harmony.

Multi Syllable Vowels which end in a Consonant
Add tense sign -ir -ır -ür -ur.
göndermekto sendkazanmakto win
gönderirimI sendkazanırımI win
gönderirsinyou sendkazanırsınyou win
gönderirhe sendskazanırhe wins
gönderirizwe sendkazanırızwe win
gönderirsinizyou sendkazanırsınızyou win
gönderirlerthey sendkazanırlarthey win

kazanabilmek to be able to win
Her hafta Milli Piyango'yu kazanabilirsin. You can win the lottery every week.
-a tırmanmak to climb up
Her yıl Nemrut Dağı'na tırmanırız. We climb (to)Mount Nemrut every year.
götürmek to bring
Mehmet, yemeğini her gün evden götürür. Mehmet, brings his lunch from home every day.
beğenmek to like, approve
Türk kahvesini beğenirler. They like Turkish coffee.

The Five Turkish Verb Roots which Mutate
These five roots soften their final -t to -d when adding a vowel suffix.
gitmekto gogiderhe goes
etmekto doederimI do
tatmakto taste oftadarlarthey taste of
ditmekto shreddidersinyou shred
gütmekto nourishgüderimI nourish..

Turkish Simple Tense Positive Interrogative

The interrogative is formed by adding the personalized question particles after the simple tense verb stem ending in -r. They are written separately, but follow vowel harmony rules.

Turkish Simple Tense Positive Interrogative
InfinitiveMeaningTurkish QuestionEnglish Question
bakmakto lookbakar mıyım?do I look?
kalmakto staykalır mısın?do you stay?
bitirmekto finishbitirir mi?does he finish?
yazmakto writeyazar mıyız?do we write?
koşmakto runkoşar mısınız?do you run?
yürümekto walkyürürler mi?do they walk?

Turkish Translation of use to..

If the past tense endings are added to the Wide Tense Positive -r verb stem then the meaning is habitual in the past. This translated by used to ... in English. However in Turkish the Simple Present Tense is used with the past tense personal endings habitual in the past.

  • Sık sık buraya gelirdim. I used to come here very often.
  • Gençken çok gülerdin. You used to laugh a lot when/while you were young.
  • Kuşadada (Kuşadasında) kalırken her zaman denizde yüzerdi. He always used to swim in the sea when staying at Kuşadası.
  • Dersler bittikten sonra uzun zaman/süre beni beklerdin. You always used to wait for me a long time after school finished.
  • Tatilde kamp yaparken daima iyi uyurlardı. They always used to sleep very well while on holiday while camping.

Turkish Proverbs Atasözler

Turkish Proverbs are usually written in the Wide Tense habitual/timeless tense. These translations are not literal showing the difficulty of such interpretation from Turkish to English.

  • Acele işe, şeytan karışır. If you hurry, the devil intervenes.
  • Çabuk parlayan çabuk söner. A flash is quickly extinguished.
  • Damlaya damlaya göl olur. Lakes form drop by drop.
  • Fakirlik ayıp değil tembellik ayıp. Poverty is no shame but idleness is.
  • İyilik eden iyilik bulur. Those who do good find goodness themselves.
  • Ne ekersen onu biçersin. You reap what you sow.
  • Önce düşün sonra söyle. Think first, speak later.
  • Sağlam kafa sağlam vücutta bulunur. A healthy mind is found in a healthy body.
  • Tok iken yemek yiyen, mezarını kendi kazar. Those who eat when they are full dig their own grave.