Turkish Simple Present Tense Participles

The Simple Present Tense is called "Geniş Zaman" [LIT: Wide Tense] in Turkish.

It is also known as the aorist or timeless tense grammar.

The Simple Present Tense is used for habitual situations.

The Wide tense participle is an adjective.

It precedes the noun which it describes.

Positive Participle formation: ‑r ‑ar ‑er ‑ir ‑ır ‑ür ‑ur replaces theInfinitive sign ‑mek ‑mak

Negtaive Participle formation: ‑maz ‑mez replaces the Infinitive sign.

Turkish Positive Timeless Participle

The simple present tense positive sign -r is used to mark this type of participle.

  • akmakto flow
    akar that which flows
    [continually, habitually]

It is verb when placed AFTER a noun:

  • Nehir, denize kadar akar.
    The river flows as far as the sea.

It is an adjective →
that which flows when placed BEFORE a noun:

  • Yatak odasında akar su var.
    There is running water in the bedroom.
    [Meaning water is available in that room.]

This is at variance with the -an/-en subject participle akan which is flowing.

Here the meaning is different:

  • Yatak odasında akan su var.
    There is water (which is) flowing in the bedroom.
    [there is leak or maybe the roof is leaking.]

The Simple Wide Tense Participle in -r -ar -er describes what generally happens as a rule.

Subject Participle in -an/-en describes what is happening now.

Turkish Simple Tense Common Noun Forms

Many Wide Tense Participles have entered the language as common nouns in their own right.

Yazmak to write. Wide Tense Participle yazar meaning writer / author.

  • Bu kitabın yazarı Orhan Kemal' dır.
    The writer of this book is Orhan Kemal.

Using the Subject Participle ‑an ‑en then the meaning changes:

  • Bu kitabı yazan Orhan Kemal' dır.
    It is Orhan Kemal who wrote this book.
    [ENG: "Orhan Kemal wrote this book"]

Turkish Simple Participle Negative Forms

Is used adjective mainly to describe the general state of objects.

This construction is also used in English.

  • Dün gece inanılamaz bir film gördüm.
    [inanıl-ama-z]
  • I saw an unbelievable film last night.
    [which is not able to be believed.]
  • O, unutulamaz bir film idi.
    [unutul-ama-z]
  • It was an unforgettable film.
    [which is not able to be forgotten.]

English uses the negative participle as an adjective by placing it in front of its noun.

It can also be uses as a verb:

  • The film I saw last night was unbelievable.
    [It could not be believed]
  • The film was unforgettable.
    [It was not able to be forgotten]

It is a matter of the position of the participle.

Placed before its noun it is an adjectival description.

Placed after its noun it is a verb.

This is the way Turkish uses these participles.

In the same manner as English.

Formation of the Turkish Negative Simple (Timeless) Participle

The simple present tense negative sign -maz/-mez is used to mark this type of participle.

akmak to flow
akmaz That which does not flow
[continually, habitually]

Examples in the negative potential form :

  • İnanılamaz bir şey oldu!
    An unbelievable thing has happened!
    [inan-ıl-a-maz "that which is not able to be usually believed"]
  • Dün akşam unutulamaz bir filim seyrettik.
    We watched an unforgettable film last night.
  • Garajınızda kullanılamaz olan eski bir bisiklet buldum.
    I found an old unusable bicycle in your garage.

This example shows the addition of olan the subject participle of olmak

The use of olan which is helps the listener to discern that the participle is an adjective.

Turkish Simple Tense Common Noun Forms

ARAÇ ÇIKABILIR

Many of these participles have also become nouns in their own right.
As a verb:
ARAÇ ÇIKABILIR
VEHICLE MAY EXIT

ÇIKMAZ SOKAK

ÇIKMAZ SOKAK
cul-de-sac
[street which does not exit.]

ÇIKMAZ

Seen on doors which lead nowhere in public buildings:
ÇIKMAZ
NO EXIT

ÇIKILMAZ

Or as a passive verb:
ÇIKILMAZ
DOES NOT EXIT

Saying As soon as in Turkish

as soon as uses both positive and negative wide tense participles in apposition:

Biz gelir gelmez yemek yiyelim.
As soon as we arrive, lets eat.

Ben gelir gelmez.
AS soon as I come / came.

sen gelir gelmez
as soon as you come / came.

The person (subject) has to be stated as it is not apparent from the verb form.

The tense is taken from the verb of the final statement.

Very often the word when can be substituted for as soon as in English

As soon as…showing changes in person in Turkish:

  • Ben gelir gelmez bir kaza oldu.
    As soon as I came an accident happened/occurred.
  • Sen gelir gelmez bir kaza oldu.
    As soon as you came an accident happened.
  • O gelir gelmez bir kaza olacakmış.
    As soon as he comes an accident will probably happen.
  • Mehmet gelir gelmez bir kaza olabilir.
    As soon as Mehmet comes an accident may happen.
  • Biz gelir gelmez bir kaza oldu.
    As soon as we came an accident happened.
  • Siz gelir gelmez bir kaza oldu.
    As soon as you came an accident happened.
  • Onlar gelir gelmez bir kaza oldu.
    As soon as they came an accident happened.
  • Polis gelir gelmez başka bir kaza oldu.
    As soon as the police came another accident occurred.
  • Biz çıkar çıkmaz annem gelecekmiş
    As soon as (when) we go out my mother may arrive.
  • Onlar oraya varır varmaz partı başlayacak.
    As soon as (when) they arrive there the party will begin.

Turkish Noun "Denoting" Participle

Denoting Participle : to mark, signal, signify the actor.

This participle is based on the noun suffix -ci which denotes an agent which ACTIONS the verb.

It can be used as a noun or as an adjective.

  • The Infinitive sign -mek -mak is dropped an replaced with:
  • ‑(y)ici ‑(y)ıcı ‑(y)ucu ‑(y)ücü ‑çı etc.
  • work
    işçı worker
  • toplamak to collect
    toplayıcı collector
  • futbol football
    futbolcu footballer
  • kale castle, goal
    kaleci goal-keeper
  • kalmak to remain
    kalıcı permanent, durable

The meaning is different from the Subject Participle -en -an This means "who is actually actioning the verb".

  • vermek to give
    verici donor
    BUT veren who gives
  • bulmak to find
    bulucu detector
    BUT bulan who finds
  • Verb: to work
    Denoting Participle: worker [the actor]
    worker bee (adj.)
  • to operateoperator
    machine operator (noun.)
  • to fillfiller
    filler cap (adj.)
  • to cut cutter
    metal cutter (noun.)
  • to waitwaiter
    waiter sevice (adj.)
  • yapışmak to stick, adhere
    yapışıcı glue
  • beklemek
    bekcı watchman
  • gülmek to smile
    yüze gülücü smiler, two faced
  • büyültmek to magnify
    büyültücü ampifier
  • almak to take
    göz alıcı eye catchıng
  • çalmak to play
    teyp çalıcı tape player
  • doyurmak to fill
    doyurucu yemek square meal, food filling
  • korumak to protect
    kulak koruyucu ear protector

Negative participles there are no negative -ici type participles.

Negative expressions are controlled through the main verb(s) in the sentence (or noun clause) where this participle is used.

  • Size daha üzücü haberler vermek istemem.
  • I don't want to give more worrying news to you.

Many have now entered the Turkish language separate nouns and adjectives.

  • böcek öldürücü
    insecticide
  • uyuşturucu
    narcotic drug
  • güldürücü
    amusing
  • etkileyici
    effective

The -ici participle is very productive in Turkish.

Care must be taken to correctly comprehend ıts meanıng

  • merak uyandırıcı
    intriguing [adj.]
  • nefret uyandırıcı
    disgusting
  • şehvet uyandırıcı
    lascivious
  • şüphe uyandırıcı
    suspicious